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IGENERAL BENDING DISCUSSION
IIMAKING A BEND
BENDING ON RAM AUTOMATIC MACHINE
7 other sections not shown
adjusting screws annealed application automatic valves become bend radius bender bending operations bending position bending tools carbon steels caused circle CIRCULAR SEGMENTS clamping clean and oiled curved DECIMAL FRACTION deformation discussed driving cylinder ductility electric motor ELONGATION finished bend flexible coupling follow free end friction fundamental GAUGE hollow section hydraulic circuits hydraulic cylinder hydraulic ram hydraulic system INCHES FOOT knee lathe tool length A-A lever load lubrication machine frame machine manufacturer maintenance mandrel supporting rod method modern bending motor mounted moved neutral axis oil is pumped piece of material pins pipe piston plane plastic range pressure relief valve push radius of bend ram bending ram type machine restrain rotary bending machine rotary machine rotary type second bend shape shoe shown in figure shows slide special tooling stainless steel STANDARD GAUGE streamlined stress stretch structure SUMMARY Summarizing Table toggle tube types of bends usually wall yield stress