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Iron and steel in the framework of modern science
The origins of the blast furnace
The diffusion of the blast furnace and of iron
13 other sections not shown
acid alloys appeared bellows Bergman Bessemer Biringuccio blast furnace bloomery Bourgin British iron bronze Buffon cannon carbon cast iron cementation cent charcoal chemical chemist chemistry China Chinese coal coke cold-shortness cooling copper crucible decarburization described developed early eighteenth century elements employed England English Europe European experiments fining Finspong France furnace and forge German graphite gray iron Grignon guns Haute-Marne Hayange hearth heat hydrogen Ihid impurities inflammable iron and steel iron family iron industry iron manufacture ironmaking ironmasters ironworks Jars Karsten Lavoisier manganese masters melting metallurgy metals mineral mining modern Mushet noted observed oxide oxygen phlogiston phosphorus pig iron practice produced puddling quenching Reaumur red-shortness reverberatory reverberatory furnace revolution salts Schubert scientific seventeenth century silicon sixteenth century slag smelting Stahl steelmaking studies sulphur Sweden Swedenborg Swedish Swedish iron technical theory trans weapons wheel white iron wood wootz wootz steel wrought iron