## The construction of theoretical f-spread ionograms from scattering in the HF band from field aligned irregularities |

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### Contents

1 Typical equatorial nighttime ionogram | 11 |

The lonosonde | 19 |

The Constitutive Relations | 25 |

20 other sections not shown

### Common terms and phrases

Airy function amplitude approximately axis backscattering contours constraint Contours of constant ct equal ctcusp ctmin cttop cusp dashes represent decreases defined derivative dipole direction downgoing ray dyadic Green's function earth's magnetic field effect electric field electron density equa equal to z0 equal to zero evaluated expression F region F-spread forward scattering free space frequencies greater frequencies less Fresnel zone geometric optics given by equation Green's function hence i/crit incident field index of refraction integral integrand interior caustic ionograms ionosonde ionosphere irregularities isotropic kilometers linear listed in equation medium multiray scattering contours numbers obtain outer scale parabolic layer parallel perpendicular phase terms plasma frequency propagation pulse q equal quencies received signal reflection level require respect result satisfied scattered field scattering angle similar single scattering stationary point surface tends to zero tion valid value of ct variables velocity vertical wave vector