The Creation of Scientific Effects: Heinrich Hertz and Electric Waves

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University of Chicago Press, Sep 15, 1994 - Science - 482 pages
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This book is an attempt to reconstitute the tacit knowledge—the shared, unwritten assumptions, values, and understandings—that shapes the work of science. Jed Z. Buchwald uses as his focus the social and intellectual world of nineteenth-century German physics.

Drawing on the lab notes, published papers, and unpublished manuscripts of Heinrich Hertz, Buchwald recreates Hertz's 1887 invention of a device that produced electromagnetic waves in wires. The invention itself was serendipitous and the device was quickly transformed, but Hertz's early experiments led to major innovations in electrodynamics. Buchwald explores the difficulty Hertz had in reconciling the theories of other physicists, including Hermann von Helmholtz and James Clerk Maxwell, and he considers the complex and often problematic connections between theory and experiment.

In this first detailed scientific biography of Hertz and his scientific community, Buchwald demonstrates that tacit knowledge can be recovered so that we can begin to identify the unspoken rules that govern scientific practice.
 

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Contents

Two Forms of Electrodynamics
7
Herwigs apparatus
17
THREE Realizing Potentials in the Laboratory
25
Vertical coil
29
Horizontal coil
30
Helmholtz interrupter
31
Ring magnet and circular capacitor
32
Cylindrical electromagnet and circular capacitor
33
NINE Specific Powers in the Laboratory
113
TEN The Cathode Ray as a Vehicle for Success
131
ELEVEN Frustration
177
TWELVE Hertzs Argument
189
THIRTEEN Assumption X
203
FOURTEEN A Novel Device
217
FIFTEEN How the Resonator Became an Electric Probe
240
SIXTEEN Electric Propagation Produced
262

Schillers experiment
34
A Holtz electrostatic generator
35
Helmholtzian induction by Gleitstelle
37
Rotating capacitor
39
FOUR A Budding Career
45
Heinrich Hertzs family tree
46
Heinrich Hertz
53
FIVE Devices for Induction
59
Hertzs spirals and bridge
65
Hertzs commutator
67
Doublewound spiral
69
Hertzs experiment diagram
70
Both spirals in circuit
71
Spiral replaced with rectilinear circuit
73
Six Hertzs Early Exploration of Helmholtzs Concepts
75
Hertzs inductive stimulator
80
Action on a linear element
82
Action on a circular element
84
Hertzs apparatus for detecting rotational effects
86
Rotating dielectric disk
91
SEVEN Rotating Spheres
95
Representation of current flow lines from Hertzs doctoral dissertation
98
Helmholtzian interactions realized
102
EIGHT Elastic Interactions
104
A sample of Kirchoffs corrections
108
Hertzs original
109
SEVENTEEN Electric Waves Manipulated
299
Restraint and Reconstruction
325
APPENDIXES
331
Waveguides and Radiators in Maxwellian Electrodynamics
333
Helmholtzs Derivation of the Forces from a Potential
340
Helmholtzs Energy Argument
348
Polarization Currents and Experiment
351
Convection in Helmholtzs Electrodynamics
354
Instability in the FechnerWeber Theory
356
Hertzs First Use of the General Helmholtz Equations
358
Hertz on the Induction of Polarization by Motion
361
Hertz on Relatively Moving Charged Conductors
364
Elastic Bodies Pressed Together
366
Evaporations Theoretical Limits
369
Hertzs Model for GeisslerTube Discharge
372
Propagation in Helmholtzs Electrodynamics
375
Forces in Hertzs Early Experiments
389
Hertzs Quasi Field Theory for Narrow Cylindrical Wires
393
Considerations regarding the Possible Background to Helmholtzs New Physics
395
Poincare and Bertrand
405
Difficulties with Charge and Polarization
407
Notes
415
Bibliography
465
Index
479
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About the author (1994)

Jed Z. Buchwald is Doris and Henry Dreyfuss Professor of History at California Institute of Technology. He was previously director of the Dibner Institute for the History of Science and Technology at Massachusets Institute of Technology.

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