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Refractory Lining and Daily Maintenance
The Coke Bed
Charge Preparation and Charging the Cupola
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acid alloys amount basic cupola basic slags bed height blocks bottom brick briquets bucket calcium calcium carbide carbide carbon dioxide cast iron cent silicon charging door chemical chill chromium coke coke bed combustion composition containing cooling cupola charge cupola melting cupola operation cupola spout desulfurizing diameter effect efficiency equipment ferrosilicon flux forehearth foundry front-slagging fuel furnace gases grades graphite gray iron heat hot blast increase inoculants installation ladle addition limestone lining lower magnesite malleable manganese material melting rate melting zone metal charge method mixture moisture molds molten iron oxidation oxygen patch pearlite phosphorus pig iron pipe pouring practice preheating pressure produced pyrometer rammed ratio reaction refractory sand shown in Fig silica slag hole soda ash stack steel scrap sulfur tap hole temperature tion tube tuyeres usually volume weight windbox