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Presentation and Appreciation
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acid alloys amount austenite basic cupola basic slags blocks bottom brick briquets bucket calcium calcium carbide carbide carbon content cast iron cementite cent silicon chemical chill chromium coke combustion composition containing cooling cupola charge cupola melting cupola operation cupola spout desulfurizing diameter effect efficiency equipment eutectic eutectoid factors ferrite ferrosilicon flux forehearth foundry fuel furnace gases graphite gray iron heat hot blast increase inoculants installation ladle addition limestone lining loss lower magnesite manganese material melting rate melting zone metal charge metal temperature method moisture mold molten iron nickel oxidation oxygen patch pearlite phosphorus pig iron practice preheating pressure produced pyrometer rammed range ratio reaction reduced refractory sand shell silica slag hole soda ash stack steel scrap structure sulfur tap hole tion tube tuyeres usually vary volume weight windbox