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MODEL OPERATION AND RESULTS
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adversarial relationships adversarial to close analysis annual demand Ballou Bullwhip Effect buyer and supplier buyer inspection costs buyer's demand carrying cost close buyer-supplier relationship close procurement relationship close relationship close versus adversarial companies cost elements costs of quality decreased defects defect rates Deming deviation of demand economic order quantity Edwards Deming EOQ model developed expected percent defective expected results external failure failure costs firms Hutchins incoming materials industry joint total cost Juran Larson Lascelles and Dale literature review logistical costs logistical implications long-term lost sales manufacturing minimizes Nevin Noordewier order cost Porter preferred supplier programs preferred vendor probability during lead product review purchase cost quality costs Quality Function Deployment quality improvement reduced safety stock reduced uncertainty sharing of information specifications statistical process control stock and stockout stockout costs supplier's product supplier's standard deviation Table Total Quality Management two-firm EOQ model unit variables zero defects