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THE PROBLEM OF SOLVENT SENSITIVITY
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absorption band alcohol aligned amides antibody approximation assumed atomic orbitals azo dyes benzothiazole merocyanine benzyl alcohol binding Brooker carbon cavity change in dipole Chem Conjugated system constant of polar curve cyanine dyes Debyes diazo linkage dielectric constant diphenyl betaine dipole moments dye molecule electric field energy equation ethyl excited fitted fluorescence formamide gas phase dipole ground state dipole hapten Hiickel hydrogen bonding solvents index of refraction interaction Kirkwood correlation factor Kirkwood-Frohlich theory McRae McRae's theory mero merocyanine dyes molecular orbital calculations N-methyl nearest solvent molecule nitrogen atom non-hydrogen bonding solvents nuclei Onsager's theory oxygen oxygen atom oxygen end parameter Phys pi electron polar liquids polarizability polyene porphyrins propionamide protein pyridine merocyanine result sensitivity of merocyanine short-range order shown in Fig sigma solvent polarity scales solvent sensitivity synthesized theory of solvent tion valence bond vents W. A. Little wavefunction wavelength