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alloy alternating current Amer amount Bessemer blast-furnace bottom-contact carbon electrodes carbon monoxide cent channel charcoal charge Chem circulation coil coke conductors connected consumption containing crucible Domnarfvet effect elec electric current electric furnace electric power electric smelting electrical energy electrical resistance Electro-Metals Electrochem electrodes Elektrometall furnace ferro-alloys ferro-manganese ferro-silicon figure foundry fuel gases Girod furnace graphite hearth heat hematite Heroult furnace induction furnace ingots Iron Age less lime lining loss lower magnesite manganese melting molten metal molten steel nace needed obtained open-hearth furnace operation oxide phase phosphorus pig iron power-factor primary winding produced reduced refining refractory regulator removed Rennerfelt resistance furnace roof scrap shaft shown in Fig silica silicon slag smelting smelting chamber Stassano steel-making steel-scrap sulphur supply tapped temperature three electrodes three-phase three-phase current tilted titanium tons Trans transformer trodes Trollhattan two-phase current usually voltage volts water-cooled
Page 208 - This cycle is repeated until a 1200-lb. button has been formed, requiring 24 to 36 hr. The furnace is allowed to cool, is torn down, and the button of metal removed. This is then cleaned and broken up, the breaking process being somewhat difficult with a 3-per cent, carbon alloy. The results of smelting ferberite concentrate to produce a crude ferrotungsten are given in Table 13. In this. operation there is practically no loss of tungsten in the slag, the, slags...
Page 208 - Ib. has formed in the furnace, a larger button being permissible because the low-carbon alloy is easier to break. The furnace is allowed to cool, is torn down, and the button of metal removed, cleaned, and broken. The refined button forms very compactly, and is free from slag.
Page 27 - Temperature, on the other hand, depends on the average velocity only, the average velocity being taken as the square root of the mean of the squares of the velocities of all the molecules engaged.
Page 72 - The voltage of each transformer can be regulated separately by means of tappings on the primary windings and a nearly constant power can thus be supplied to each pair of electrodes in spite of changes in the electrical resistance between them. The regulation of the electric power is thus effected by changing the voltage of the supply and not by moving the electrodes up and down. When...
Page 72 - II) and they are connected together by gearing, so that they must turn at the same rate. The electrodes do not, as a rule, need moving more than once in two or three days. The larger furnaces have six electrodes, supplied with three-phase current from three transformers: Each transformer is connected to two diametrically opposite electrodes, so that the electric current tends to pass between these instead of between adjacent electrodes, as in the earlier arrangement.
Page 27 - This is the square root of the mean of the squares of all the deviations of scores from the mean of the group.
Page 208 - The furnace is allowed to cool, is torn down, and the button of metal removed, cleaned, and broken. The refined button forms very compactly, and is free from slag. The refining has reduced the carbon from 3 to 0.8 per cent., reduced the phosphorus from 0.05 to 0.01 per cent., left the sulphur the same, and increased the tungsten from 70 to 75 per cent. The refining slag contains 5 to 20 per cent, tungsten, and is resmelted in a special run.
Page 72 - ... material in the furnace, it is fed farther in, as described above. The circulation of the furnace gas is an important feature of this type of furnace. The gas is withdrawn from the top of the furnace, passed through dust catchers, then through pipes, where it meets a spray of water, then through a centrifugal fan, also supplied with a water spray, and finally, through a separating chamber for the removal of the entangled water. In some cases a Roots blower is used to ensure a const*it flow of...
Page 27 - One electrical horsepower is equal to the current in amperes multiplied by the electromotive force or voltage of the circuit and divided by 746. Let C be the current in amperes and E the voltage of the circuit. If EHP be the required electrical horsepower, then EHP=^° (1) Example: What is the electrical horsepower of a 200volt motor, which takes a current of 80 amperes?