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alcohol allowed amount animals appear applied army avoided bacteria bathing become bites blood body boiling breed camp carried carriers cause cholera clean cleanliness clothing cold common considered constitute contain cooking danger death desirable destroy discussed disease drink early effects epidemics especially exercise fact feet fever fleas flies frequently germs give habits hands harm heat important increase indicated infection influence instances isolation keep kitchen known later least less light matter means measures meat method milk mosquitoes natural necessary occasionally occur officer organisms particularly pass patient period persons places plague poisons possible practically predispose prevent probably produce proper protection reason result served sick skin soldiers spread suffer supply taken tion transmitted tropics typhoid urine usually variety vary vegetables ventilation weeks
Page 238 - Typhoid fever gradually disappeared in the fall of 1898, with the approach of cold weather, and the consequent disabling of the fly. It is possible for the fly to carry the typhoid bacillus in two ways. In the first place fecal matter containing the typhoid germ may adhere to the fly and be mechanically transported. In the second place, it is possible that the typhoid bacillus may be carried ir the digestive organs of the fly and may be deposited with its excrement.
Page 227 - Corps developed typhoid fever. 2. More than 90 per cent of the volunteer regiments developed typhoid fever within eight weeks after going into camp.
Page 238 - My reasons for believing that flies were active in the dissemination of typhoid may be stated as follows : a Flies swarmed over infected fecal matter in the pits and then visited and fed upon the food prepared for the soldiers at the mess tents. In some instances where lime had recently been sprinkled over the contents of the pits, flies with their feet whitened with lime were seen walking over the food.
Page 94 - ... whole trough is flushed by simple removal of the cylinder, which allows it to empty. Another plan that has been found to afford a certain amount of satisfaction in a permanent camp emptying its waste into a small stream includes large closed boxes or tanks made of concrete (wood might be used) into or through which the sewage flows and in which enough sedimentation and disintegration occur to make the outflow a pale opalescent fluid almost free from odor and easily visible particles. It is not...
Page 254 - Cheyenne during the late summer and the early autumn. Likewise the surgeon at the Cavalry camp reported that during July and the first half of August, 1913, 48 cases of typhoid fever occurred in the town of Winchester, Va., 5 miles distant from the camp. It is to be especially emphasized that there has been no lessening of the efforts in the Army to prevent, by improved sanitary measures, the occurrence of typhoid infection. Advances in the other sanitary measures have gone on, hand in hand, with...
Page 225 - Report on the Origin and Spread of Typhoid Fever in United States Military Camps during the Spanish War of 1898.
Page 227 - Typhoid fever is so widely distributed in this country that one or more cases are likely to appear in any regiment within eight weeks after assembling.
Page 95 - Within the writer's experience ihe most satisfactory of these methods has been the disposition of the contents of Reed troughs into large pits, where the surface of the refuse was kept covered with a layer of crude petroleum. This resulted in absence of odor and of flies, but the labor involved in handling excreta from troughs to pits was considerable, that expended in digging pits more, and accidents occasionally happened which resulted in soiling the ground of the camp.