The Elements of Morality, Including Polity

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John W. Parker, 1845 - Ethics
 

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Contents

Theories 10 The Reason Speculative
9
The Springs of Human Action
10
The Understanding
11
The Intellect
12
Action
13
Intention
14
Will
15
Rules of Action
16
Reflex Thought 58 The Desire of being loved 59 The Desire of Esteem
28
Love
29
Kinds of Love
30
Anger
31
Gratitude Resentment Malice
32
Man in Society
33
Intercourse of
34
Tend to Abstractions
35
Memory and Imagination
36
Means and Ends
37
Separation of Mental Desires Instincts
38
The Desire of Safety
39
Instinct of Selfpreservation
40
Desire of Security
41
Desire of Liberty
42
Men at Enmity
43
The Desire of Having
44
Things and Persons
45
Property is necessary
46
The Desire of Family Society
47
The Desire of Civil Society
48
Mental Desires include Affections
49
The Need of a Mutual Under standing 51 Promises are necessary
50
The Desire of Superiority
52
Desire of Equal Rules
53
The Desire of Knowledge
54
Rules with Reasons
57
Chap
65
Knowledge and Reason
68
Right relatively used 71 Refers to a superior
71
Right absolutely used
72
The Supreme Good
73
Ought Duty
74
Why Ought
76
Man a Moral Being
77
Rights must exist
78
Rights separately proved
79
Five Primary kinds of Rights
80
Wrong Injury
81
Rights are Realities
82
Punishment
83
Rights and right
84
Obligation
85
Obligation and Duty
86
Obliged and Ought
87
Obligation and Moral Claim
88
Perfect and Imperfect Obligation
89
The Rights op Contract
90
Nude Pacts 160 Consideration
91
Duress
92
Contracts of Minors
93
Contracts void by Fraud 164 Formulse of Contracts 165 Nominate Contracts
94
Mutuum and Commodatum
95
Repairs and Expenses 168 Debt 169 Promissory Notes and Bills of Exchange 170 Bailment
96
Eviction
99
The Moral Sentiments
100
Rape and Seduction English Law 189 Inheritance
112
Art 404 Promise of Marriage
113
Excusable Homicide 116 Dangerous Games
116
Selfdefense
117
Manslaughter
118
Murder
119
Justifiable Homicide
120
Nocturnal Thief
121
Provocation
122
Accessories
123
Duels
124
Punishment
125
Riot
127
Classes of Men with imperfect Rights
128
The Rights op Property 74
130
Chains of Rules
131
The Reason Practical
132
Real and Personal Property
133
The Speculative and Practical Reason 22 Development of Mind
134
Ryots Serfs Metayers Farmers
135
Feudal System
136
Its present influence
137
Quiritarian Ownership
138
Instincts 24 Springs of Action Motives
139
Title Conveyance Remedies
140
Idea of Goodness
141
Wrongs Larceny Burglary
142
Trespass
143
Dominium Eminens
144
Public Property
145
Res Nullius
146
Incorporeal Property
147
Feudal Services
148
Animalia feraj natur
149
Treasure Trove
151
Intellectual Virtues
156
Vanity Honour
163
Moral exercises needed
169
The Sense of Duty 278 Duty is determined by social relations 279 Duty gives Moral Significance to Obligations 280 Classification of Duties
171
Duties of the Affections
173
Special benevolent Affections are Duties 282 Gratitude is a Duty
175
Reverence for Superiors is a Duty
176
The Family
178
Jewish Marriage
179
Greek Marriage
180
Testament Roman
190
Limited
191
Will English
192
Entail
193
Legacies
194
Dowry Jointure
195
Tutor Curator
196
Guardian
197
Lawful Marriage
198
Roman Forms of Marriage
199
English Forms of Marriage
200
Religious Ceremony of Marriage
201
Divorce in Roman
202
Divorce in English
203
Concubinage
206
The Rights op Government or State Rights 117
207
National Government
208
The Supreme Authority
209
Constitution The Executive Function
210
The Judicial Function
211
Rebellion Treason
213
International
214
Government de Jure and de Facto
215
Legislative Body
216
Fact of Law and Idea of Justice to be brought together
217
Law and Justice cannot exist separately
218
Law is a means of Moral Education
219
Jural Discipline of the Romans
220
Influence of Justice on
221
Law leads to Morality
222
Other Classes of Rights
223
Defamation in Roman and English
224
Conscience not an Ultimate Authority 369 May be erroneous
239
Cases of Conscience respecting Truth
242
Interpretation of Promises 378 Erroneous Promises
244
Promises released by the Promisee 380 Unlawful Promises
245
but the Relative Duty is violated
247
vol 1
251
Should the Promise be given? 392 Analogy of the Law 393 Lies
253
Falsehoods under Convention 395 To be carefully limited 396 Lie to conceal a Secret 397 Lie to preserve a Mans Life 398 Lies of Necessity
256
Heroic Lies 400 Advocates Assertions
257
The unlawful Promise of Marriage 406 Implied Promise of Marriage
264
Op Cases op Necessity
265
408 First to ones Self 409 Necessity to be rigorously understood 410 Constraint is not Necessity 411 Fear of certain Death is Necessity 412 Necessity ...
268
Trusts
272
Death is an event in Mans moral being 418 Necessity has no
273
169
274
Case of Necessity from Danger to others 420 Such Cases of Necessity are not to be defined 421 Conflicts of Duties to be decided by regard to Moral ...
275
Strong Moral Principles decide such Conflicts 423 Heroic Acts
277
Resistance to Government
278
Of Things Allowable 279 Art 425 The notion of Allowable belongs to Cases of Necessity
279
Is not lightly to be extended 427 Some things are Indifferent 428 But many of these only at first sight 429 The selection is to be directed by Moral C...
283
Hence Acts are a Discipline 432 Mortification Askesis 433 Not ascetic but spontaneous Virtue is required 434 Discipline of the Intellect
286
Advocates Profession to be Moral 402 Sellers Concealments 403 The Alexandrian Merchant
290
May be unavoidable
291
but care is needed 441 Their consequences to be redressed 442 If they arise from Negligence are defects 443 But they may palliate actions 444 Ignor...
293
By unfolding conceptions of Virtues
295
By unfolding the notion of doing Good
296
By acts of Duty
297
We have never done all that is possible
298
Our Moral Culture is a Duty
299
Our Moral Progress never terminates
300
It is our Duty to cultivate Gratitude
303
The greatest interruptions are the greatest transgressions
304
The Duty of Moral Culture adds to other Duties
305
Moral Perfection is our greatest Good
306
The State
309
What is the State? 466 The Conception among the Greeks 467 Among the Romans 468 In later times
311
The State is not a mere Concourse of men 470 The State is one and perpetual 471 The State is Sovereign 472 The People is not the Source of Rights ...
313
Chap XXI
319
Rights not always vitiated by previous injustice 483 No single Rule is absolute 484 Justice assigns Rights according to existing Conditions 485 Justice ...
320
Eqdity
328
The Prsetors power did not disregard the Law 500 Equity not properly defined as abating the rigour of the Law 501 Equity does supply some defects...
331
JEquitas sequitur legem
333
In equalijure melior est conditio possidentis 506 Qui sentit onus sentire debet et cornmodum 507 Other Maxims
334
Equity is Equality 497 Separation of Justice and Equity
335
Whether all men are born equal 510 All men are moral beings
336
Not Superseded by right Intention
337
The Duty of acting rationally
338
The Duty of acting according to Rule
339
The Duty of Wisdom
340
Conceptions to be defined
341
The Duty of Intellectual Culture
342
Especially for Legislators
343
And Educators 1
344
Slavery ancient and modern 521 Definitions of Slavery 522 It is contrary to Morality 523 May be excusable in early stages of progress 524 Is conde...
345
Of ourselves and others
346
Such progress is possible
347
Can never terminate
348
Transgression
349
Temptation
350
Resistance
351
Degrees of Guilt
352
Measure of Guilt
353
Interruption of Moral Progress
354
Repentance
355
Amendment
356
Not necessarily sufficient
357
Amendment must be immediate
358
Of Conscience 234
360
Conscience the
361
Conscience the Witness
362
Conscience the Punisher
363
To act against Conscience is wrong
364
Is to act according to Conscience always right?
365
Conscience to be enlightened and instructed
366
Aid of Religion needed
367
Moral Education
369

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Popular passages

Page 103 - By marriage, the husband and wife are one person in law: that is, the very being or legal existence of the woman is suspended during the marriage, or at least is incorporated and consolidated into that of the husband...
Page 66 - And he that stealeth a man, and selleth him, or if he be found in his hand, he shall surely be put to death.
Page 67 - As when a man goeth into the wood with his neighbour to hew wood, and his hand fetcheth a stroke with the axe to cut down the tree, and the head slippeth from the helve, and lighteth upon his neighbour, that he die ; he shall flee unto one of those cities, and live...
Page 345 - A slave is one who is in the power of a master to whom he belongs. The master may sell him, dispose of his person, his industry and his labor. He can do nothing, possess nothing, nor acquire anything but what must belong to his master.
Page 104 - In the civil law the husband and the wife are considered as two distinct persons, and may have separate estates, contracts, debts, and injuries: and therefore in our ecclesiastical courts, a woman may sue and be sued without her husband.
Page 92 - A good consideration is such as that of blood, or of natural love and affection, when a man grants an estate to a near relation: being founded on motives of generosity, prudence, and natural duty; a valuable consideration is such as money, marriage, or the like, which the law esteems an equivalent given for the grant:^ and is therefore founded in motives of justice.
Page 104 - The husband also, by the old law, might give his wife moderate correction. For, as he is to answer for her misbehaviour, the law thought it reasonable to intrust him with this power of restraining her, by domestic chastisement, in the same moderation that a man is allowed to correct his apprentices or children; for whom the master or parent is also liable in some cases to answer.
Page 115 - For the canon law, which the common law follows in this case, deems so highly and with such mysterious reverence of the nuptial tie, that it will not allow it to be unloosed for any cause whatsoever, that arises after the union is made.
Page 257 - Octavius to be killed, declaring himself to be Brutus. So far as such acts come under the Moralist's notice, they must be considered under a special head ; for Heroic Virtue, as we have already said, is beyond the range of the Rules of Duty. 400. Though assertions, not literally true, may, by general Convention, cease to be Lies, we must be careful of trifling with the limits of such cases, and of too readily assuming, and acting upon, such Conventions. Carelessness in these matters, will diminish...
Page 107 - English law likewise justifies a woman killing one who attempts to ravish her: and so too the husband or father may justify killing a man who attempts a rape upon his wife or daughter : but not if he takes them in adultery by consent, for the one is forcible and felonious, but not the other.

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