The Evolution of Reef Communities
Discusses the composition, structure, occurrence, and changes in reefs during the past 2 billion years. This is the only fully integrated treatment of these factors and processes with the evolutionary history of the organisms that have built reefs. Emphasizes the functional roles of major groups (guilds) of reef-building, reef-destroying, and reef-dwelling organisms in the most complex of all marine communities. A structural model, based on modern reef guilds, is developed. Then the functional roles of each major reef-building higher biologic taxon (algae, sponges, coral, etc.) is determined, and, on this basis, each such taxon is assigned to a reef community guild. Next, the author traces the geologic history and guild assignment of each major taxon through geologic time. The final chapter establishes a succession of ten major reef community types, and considers their extinction and recovery in the light of modern theories of cosmic and earthly events. Profusely illustrated.
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What Is a Reef?
Autecology and History of Bryozoa Brachiopoda Bivalvia
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abundant adjacent algal ridge ancient reefs aphotic zone aphotic zone reefs archaeocyathids areas atolls baffler baffler guild Barrier Reef bathymetric benthic binder guild biological biomass brachiopods bryozoans calcareous Cambrian carbonate Cenozoic Cenozoic reefs Chap colonial constructor guild coralla coralline algae Cretaceous currents deposition depth Devonian dominated dweller guild ecological encrusting extinction factors fossil frame-building genera geologic geomorphic growth forms growth rates guild overlap guild structure higher taxa Holocene Holocene reefs important Indo-Pacific internal sediment Islands Jurassic lagoon Late Limestone margin morphology non-skeletal non-zooxanthellate numerous Ordovician organic framework Paleozoic patch reefs Permian photic zone photic zone reefs polyps Porifera pre-Cenozoic reefs processes produced reef communities reef complexes reef crest reef flat reef framework reef systems reef-building relatively rudists scleractinians sclerosponges seaward slope sediment shallow shallow-water shelf reefs skeletal skeletons sphinctozoans sponges stromatolites stromatoporoids subcommunities substrate surface taxa taxonomic topographic relief Triassic trophic turbulence zonation zooxanthellae