The Expansion of Russia: Problems of the East and Problems of the Far East

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International monthly, 1900 - Eastern question - 95 pages
 

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Page 41 - Japan, he returned overland to St. Petersburg, crossing the whole extent of Siberia. The Czarovitch, of course, did not give his impressions a literary form ; but one of his travelling companions, Prince Oukhtomski has published his in two luxurious volumes, magnificently illustrated by the Russian artist Karazine.1 The opinions of Prince Oukhtomski seem to reveal a new element in Russian policy. Formerly the Russians were indignant over Prince Bismarck's reported observation that "Russia has nothing...
Page 42 - Asia, on the contrary, who knows whether by the Euphrates and the Persian Gulf, by Afghanistan and the Indus, she is not going to be able to open her way to the Indian Ocean ? Who knows whether, already mistress of the Okhotsk Sea, she will not become mistress also of the Sea of Japan and the Yellow Sea, both opening with broad outlets into the immensity of the Pacific ? Now, the importance that in ancient times the Mediterranean had for mankind, and which the Atlantic possessed from the fifteenth...
Page 56 - The question of the settlement of the boundaries was scarcely disposed of, when another question presented itself in the settlement of the boundaries of the Pamirs. These form a plateau of from four to five thousand metres in altitude, known as the " roof of the world," with a rigorous climate and sparse population. This plateau commands both Afghanistan and Cashmere, those two ramparts of India and Chinese Turkestan. It was broken up into petty khanates, over which the Khan of Bokhara, the vassal...
Page 8 - Asia was divided into the Mongol empire of China, the Mongol empire of India, the Mongol kingdom of Persia, and a large number of khanates in Turkestan and Siberia ; and all those states were scarcely any longer Mongol save in name. In Russia itself, the Golden Horde was broken up. From its debris were formed the czarate of Kazan on the middle Volga, the khanate, or czarate, of Sarai, or Astrakhan, on the lower Volga, the horde of the Nogais, and the khanate of the Crimea. In 1476, Akhmed, the Khan...
Page 69 - On his part, Governor Muravief endeavored to persuade the local mandarins that the best thing to do was to leave the Russians alone. The Chinese demanded that negotiations be entered upon with their Emperor; Muravief thought that Pekin was too far away for that and that Chinese diplomacy was too slow. He continued to act, therefore, as if the country were already a Russian province, and strengthened his position by building along the river the forts Alexandrovsk, Mikhai•lovsk, and Nicolaievsk,...
Page 54 - The agreement with Persia and the conquest of Turkestan brought Russia's power to the frontier of Afghanistan, which the English regard as the protecting wall of their Indian Empire. At every forward movement of the Russians, they protested or endeavored to secure guarantees against a new advance or tried to gain for themselves some new strategic point that would strengthen their position. They were not always successful. After the first siege of Herat by the Persians, in 1840, the English made the...
Page 15 - ... diplomacy, with tireless patience, with a shrewdness equal to its persistency, endeavoring simultaneously in all directions to pierce the blockade. She strives to secure access to the Baltic Sea ; and we shall have the Northern war of Peter the Great, the partition of Poland under Catherine II., the Finland question under the Czarina Elizabeth, and under Alexander I. She strives to secure access to the Black Sea ; and we shall have the Eastern question, in all its forms, from the first efforts...
Page 57 - Somatash (July 1 2,), after which they fell back and took up their position at Kalabery on the Oxus. This clash of arms was succeeded by a diplomatic controversy. It was not until 1895, after a keen discussion between the two great Powers, each contending for its own client, that they reached an agreement. The disputed region was divided between Bokhara and Afghanistan, the former receiving the little khanates of Shugnan and Roschan, and the latter the khanate of Wakhan, a narrow strip of territory,...
Page 60 - ... their sacrifices, what Paul I. called " all the riches of the Indies." A recent historian of Russian expansion,1 Alexis Krause, reviewing all the hardships endured by Russia and the thankless task that she has assumed, adds : " On its own account, the con quest of Central Asia is worthless. It was not done in ignorance, but by carefully thought-out design, as part of a programme, the execution of which its possession will assist. The capture of the khanates was attempted, not as a pathway towards...
Page 89 - ... existence ; and the same tendency to oriental fatalism, which the orthodox term Christian resignation. And thus, as Elisee Reclus remarks, the Yakuts easily become Russians and the Russians as easily become Yakuts, and both Russians and natives possess the same readiness in acquiring the language of the foreigner. Does not the difference in religion constitute a barrier between them ? The Russian peasant with his rudimentary faith, to which,, nevertheless, he holds with all his heart, and even...

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