The Fruit Culturist, Adapted to the Climate of the Northern States: Containing Directions for Raising Young Trees in the Nursery, and for the Management of the Orchard and Fruit Garden

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M.H. Newman, 1846 - Fruit-culture - 220 pages
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Page 30 - In these latter cases, the food absorbed from the earth by the root of the stock is communicated slowly and unwillingly to the scion ; under no circumstances is the communication between the one and the other as free and perfect as if their natures had been more nearly the same ; the sap is impeded in its ascent, and the proper juices are impeded in their descent, whence arises that accumulation of secretion which is sure to be attended by...
Page 30 - Thus, when pears are grafted or budded on the wild species ; apples upon crabs, plums upon plums, and peaches upon peaches or almonds, the scion is, in regard to fertility, exactly in the same state as if it had not been grafted at all ; while, on the other hand, a great increase of fertility is the result of grafting pears upon quinces, peaches upon plums, apples upon whitethorn, and the like. In the latter cases, the food absorbed from the earth by the root of the stock is communicated slowly...
Page 30 - In proportion as the scion and the stock approach each other closely in constitution, the less effect is produced by the latter ; and, on the contrary, in proportion to the constitutional difference between the stock and the scion, is the effect of the former important. Thus, when Pears are grafted or budded on the wild species, Apples upon Crabs, Plums upon Plums, and Peaches upon Peaches or Almonds, the scion is, in regard to fertility, exactly in the same state as if it had not been grafted at...
Page 49 - An incision is made lengthwise through the bark of the stock, and a small cut at right angles at the top, the whole somewhat resembling the letter T, Fig.
Page 217 - June, cut it off smoothly below the surface of the ground, and split the stock and insert one or two scions in the usual manner, binding the cleft well together if it does not close firmly. Draw the soil carefully over the whole, leaving two or three buds of the scion above the surface.
Page 52 - Thus, varieties of the same species unite the most freely, then species of the same genus, then genera of the same natural order ; beyond which the power does not extend, unless, in the case of parasites like the Mistletoe, which grow indifferently upon totally different plants. For instance, Pears work freely upon Pears, very well on Quinces, less willingly on Apples or Thorns, and not at all upon Plums or Cherries ; while the Lilac will take on the Ash, and the Olive on the Phillyrea, because they...
Page 128 - The form of the glands, as well as their position, is perfectly distinct ; they are fully developed in the month of May, and they continue to the last permanent in their character, and are not affected by cultivation. The globose glands are situated, one, two, or more, on the footstalks, and one, two, or more on the tips or points of the serratures of the leaves. The reniform glands grow also on the footstalks of the leaves, but those on the leaves are placed within the serratures, connecting, as...
Page 49 - A bud is then taken from a shoot of the present year's growth, by shaving off the bark an inch or an inch and a half in length with a small part of the wood directly beneath the bud.
Page 121 - The borer sometimes proves a formidable enemy. It is the larva of an insect which attacks the wood of the trunk, near the surface of the ground, and works inwards, usually upwards, but sometimes downwards, to a distance of several inches into the wood, during the summer season. "As the borer frequently destroys the tree, various means of prevention have been resorted to. The remedies described for the apple-borer are found useful. When the insect has once obtained possession, the best method appears...
Page 94 - ... sold them. This is a serious evil, to say nothing of the disappointment to the purchaser ; for, unless the mistake be detected at first, the longer the tree grows before it is discovered, the more time will have been lost in its cultivation ; and, be it remembered, this time is irrecoverable.

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