The Geological Story of Kansas

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Crane, 1900 - Geology - 139 pages
 

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Page 13 - Geology may be defined, therefore, as the history of the earth and its inhabitants, as revealed in its structure, and as interpreted by causes still in operation. There is no other science which requires for its full comprehension a general knowledge of so many other departments of science. A knowledge of mathematics, physics, and chemistry, is required to understand dynamical geology; a knowledge of mineralogy and lithology is required...
Page 108 - CLASSICS in the shale above and roots in the shale below. If all this is not conclusive, an examination of the swamps and bogs of to-day will reveal incipient coal-beds. The peat is but coal in its first stages. All vegetable matter when it decomposes under water in the absence of air, becomes more and more bituminized till it is finally coal. If it decomposes in the presence of air, nothing but vegetable mold results.
Page 127 - Palaeozoic had been in the East, by a time of great mountain making, and to this movement is attributed the formation of most of the great Western mountain chains. From the Arctic Ocean to Mexico the effects of the disturbance were apparent. The Rocky Mountains, the Wasatch and Uinta ranges, the high plateaus of Utah and Arizona, and the mountains of western Texas date from this time, though subsequent movements have greatly modified them. Vast volcanic outbreaks accompanied the upheaval, which was...
Page 105 - Kansas during the Carbonic Period. The proofs of this statement are found in the coal-beds and in the strata above and below. In the coal itself, the microscope reveals decomposed vegetable tissue. Leaves are found abundantly...
Page 108 - Careful estimates state that one-eighth of an inch of coal represents the growth of swamp vegetation for a century ; therefore a ten-inch bed of coal represents the growth of swamp vegetation for eight thousand years.
Page 108 - In the same swamp, also, some parts had a thicker deposit of leaves than others, and therefore thin coal-beds may thicken in portions of an area to such an extent that it pays to .work the beds for the coal.
Page 40 - Tho chain of St. Lawrence waters is characterized by a series of fresh water lakes unparalleled in extent and elevated from one hundred to six hundred feet above the level of the Ocean. At a distance of nearly two thousand miles from the Gulf of St. Lawrence is the largest of these lakes, Lake Superior, elevated six hundred feet above the soa, the surplus waters of which form the St.
Page 109 - The thickest bed of coal, the one of forty inches, represents a swamp growth and deposition of peat for thirtytwo thousand years...
Page 14 - Limestone is but slightly soluble in pure water, but is readily dissolved in water containing carbon dioxide.

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