The influence of cattle grazing and grass seeding on coniferous regeneration after shelterwood cutting in eastern Oregon
Kenneth W. Seidel, J. Michael Geist, Gerald S. Strickler, Pacific Northwest Research Station (Portland, Or.)
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, 1990 - Conifers - 32 pages
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1/2 milacre Stocking 1/2-milacre quadrats 119 square feet 27 square 73 square Abies grandis acre all species Actual densities amounts of litter area per acre average basal area cattle grazing cutting were 33 densities after cutting density of residual desired after shelterwood Dougl Douglas-fir errors are given feet of basal feet per acre ft2/acre grand fir grass seeding high-density plots inches Larix occidentalis litter and slash litter with mineral lodgepole pines low-density plots mineral soil visible mixed conifer stands number of seedlings overstory on whole percent of surface Percent per 1/2 percent stocking Pinus contorta ponderosa pine present per acre Pseudotsuga menziesii quadrats classified quadrats from 1975 residual overstory seed cut seed fall seeded grasses seeded Grazed seeded not seeded seeding treatments seedling establishment seedling numbers seedlings per acre seedlings present shelterwood cutting slash covering small twigs subplot treatment Table Target density tree seedlings understory vegetation volcanic ash whole plots