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The Bessemer Processes
The Basic OpenHearth Process
19 other sections not shown
acid open-hearth addition alloy steels aluminum amount annealing basic open-hearth bath bessemer process bessemer steel billet blowholes bottom brick carbon content carbon steel casting cent carbon charge chemical chromium clad coating cold composition converter cooling corrosion Courtesy deoxidation desired diameter electric furnace electrode eliminated equipment extrusion factors ferromanganese ferrosilicon Figure finished forging gage gases grades grain hammer hearth heat hot metal hot rolling hydrogen inches increase ingot iron oxide ladle lime machine magnesite manganese material mechanical method mold molten nickel open-hearth furnaces open-hearth process operation oxidation oxygen pass phosphorus pickling piece pig iron pipe plants plate pouring practice pressure range reaction reduced refractory removed result rimming sand scale scrap shape sheet silica silicon skelp slab slag solidification stainless steelmaking strip sulfur surface tapping temperature thickness tonnage tons tube tubular products two-high usually vacuum melting welding