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Steel Castings and Steel Ingots
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acid alloy annealing basic converter bath Bessemer Bessemer converter billet blast furnace gas blast furnace metal bloom blow bottom carbon content cast iron Chapter charge coal coating coils cold continuous mill cooled crucible diameter drawing drop forging electric electric arc furnace ferrous oxide finished flux four-high haematite hammer heat hot metal illustrated in Fig ingot ingot moulds iron and steel iron oxide ladle lime limestone machine mandrel manganese mechanical melting modern molten open hearth furnace operation oxidised oxygen passes pearlite phosphorus piece pig iron plate produced puddling furnace pyrometer rails re-heating reaction reduced refractories removed rollers rolling mill scrap shape shear sheet shown in Fig silica silicon slab slag smelting steam steel containing steelmaking steelworks sulphur surface taphole temperature tensile thickness three-high tinplate tons tube tuyeres two-high usually welding wire wrought iron