The Metallography of Steel and Cast Iron

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McGraw-Hill book Company, Incorporated, 1916 - Iron - 641 pages
 

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Contents

Iron Founding
9
Huntsmans Crucible Process
10
Thomass Basic Process
11
CHAPTER
12
What is Iron Ore?
13
The Iron Core of the Earth
14
Utilization of the Ether
15
What Hardship will the Increase in the Cost of Iron Cause in the Centuries near at Hand?
16
Will the Rise in Wages Raise the Cost of Iron?
17
The Cost of Iron will Rise More Rapidly than that of Vegetable Products
18
The Appreciation of Iron Less Serious than that of Coal
19
CHAPTER 3
21
The General Scheme of Iron Manufacture The Conversion of the Iron of the Ore into Cast Iron
23
Difficulties in the Way of a Direct Process for Making Steel
26
Section Paoe 37 The Further Steps in the Manufacture of Iron and Steel
27
Making Malleable Castings
28
Conversion or Purification Processes for Making Steel and Wrought Iron
29
Chemistry of Purification
30
Desulphurization
31
The Electric Steelmaking Furnaces
33
Fining and Recarburizing
34
Classification of Processes
35
CHAPTER 4
36
The Four Primary Classifications of the Industrial Iron Products
38
The Structural Classification
39
Molten and Plastic Origin
40
A Reason for Using Origin as a Basis of Classification
41
Congenital and Postgenital Malleableness
42
The Existing Nomenclatures
43
The Philadelphian Nomenclature
46
Extent and Quality of Use of these Two Nomenclatures
47
The Defects of the Philadelphian Nomenclature Its Ambiguity
48
Summary
50
The Carbon Content of Lowcarbon Steel is not Necessarily More than that of Wrought Iron
51
Definitions of the Chief Kinds of Iron and Steel
54
CHAPTER 5
61
General View of the Constitution of the Carbon Steels and Cast Iron
62
Ferrite and Cementite
63
Mode of Aggregation of the Ferrite and Cementite in the Steel Group Pearlite
64
The Proportion of Pearlite and of the Proeutectoid Element shown Graphically
65
The Lamellar Structure of Pearlite not always Visible
66
Pearlite in Cast Iron
68
Mode of Aggregation of the Ferrite and Cementite in the Eutectiferous or Castiron Group The Eutectic
69
Variations in the Carbon Content of the Eutectic
70
The General Parallelism between the Eutectic Ledeburite and the Eutectoid Pearlite
71
Graphical Illustration of the Proportion of the Various Constituents Present in the Eutectiferous Group
72
To Recapitulate
73
Structural Correspondence between the Steel and the Whitecastiron Group
74
The Eutectiferous or Castiron Group
75
The White Cast Irons Figs J to O Plate 3
76
Relation of Austenite to Ferrite
77
Martensite
78
The Hardening Power and Thermal Treatment
79
The Natural Division of the Steelwhitecastiron Series of Alloys
80
Habit of Aggregation
81
Columnar Structure
82
Defects
83
Summary
85
Additional Graphical Representation of this Relation
88
Each Grade of Pig Iron Varies in Graphite Content
89
This Relation Illustrated by the Pig Irons Content of Combined Carbon and of Graphite
91
The Relation of the Gray Castiron Series to the Steelwhitecastiron Series Illustrated by the Iron Foundry Products
92
Gray Cast Irons a Conglomerate of a Metallic Matrix with a Graphite Skeleton
93
The Constitution of Cast Iron Illustrated Micrographically
98
Examples of Variation in the Nature of the Matrix in a Single Specimen
99
Example of a Matrix Equivalent to a Hypereutectoid Steel
100
The Foundry Products as Additional Examples of the Constitution of Gray Cast Iron
101
The Apparent Excess of Graphite in Malleable Castings
102
Other Cases in which the Graphite Masses are Compact Johnsons Oxygenated Cast Iron
104
Correspondence between the Steels and the Castiron Foundry Products in their Basis of Classification
105
Section Paob 127 Relation between Grayiron Castings Malleable Castings and Steel Castings
106
Condensed Statement of the Relation of Graphitization to Properties
107
CHAPTER 7
111
Introduction Ill 130 Summary Ill 131 The Precipitation of a Salt from a Strong Solution
113
The Freezing of a Weak Solution
114
Mushiness in the Freezing Range
115
The Course of Solidification shown Quantitatively
116
Recapitulation Meaning of the Sodiumnitratewater Diagram
117
Second their Freezing is Selective
118
Sixth Freezing of the Eutectic Solution
119
To Sum this up
120
Properties of the Eutectic
121
Why the Eutectic is Composite
122
Arrival at Eutectic Composition and Freezing Point are Simultaneous
123
Proeutectic Salt and Ice
124
Equilibrium Diagram
125
A Dissimilarity between Hypo and Hypereutectic Freezing
126
Introduction to the Carboniron Diagram Cementiteaustenite or Metastable Form 163 Summary
127
Introduction
128
Each Ordinate Traces the Course of a Given Steel or Cast Iron
129
The Cementiteaustenite or Metastable Diagram
131
Other Illustrations of the Solidification and Genesis of the Various Constituents
132
Cast Iron of 4 30 Per Cent of Car bon or Eutectic Cast Iron
133
The Eutectic
134
Sketch Showing the Mechanism of Solidification
135
Eutectic Colonies
137
The Proeutectic Solidification
138
The Quantitative Progress of Solidification
140
The Mushy Stage
141
The Mushy Stage Utilized
142
Illustration of the Crystalline Growth of Hypoeutectic Cast Iron A The Growth of the Primary Austenite during Proeutectic Solidification
144
The Solidification of Hypereutectic Cast Iron of 4 80 Per Cent of Carbon
146
The Eutectic Solidification
147
The Quantitative Progress of Solidification
148
A Mushy Stage
149
The Incompleteness of the Selection in the Solidification of Hypoeutectic Alloys
150
Differentiation in Solidifying and Equalization by Diffusion
152
203A The Solubility of Carbon in Solid Austenite
153
The Eutectiferous Range Shown Micrographically
154
Industrial Cast Irons in General and Very High Carbon Steels are Eutectiferous
155
This Widening Applies to Other Methods of Determining the Width of the Eutectic Range
156
The Widening of the Eutectiferous Range shown Micrographically
157
Introduction to the Carboniron DiagramContinued the transformations in steel 210 The Transformation Range in General
158
In Hypereutectoid Steel
159
Section Page The Recalescence
160
218A Points of Difference between Pearlite and Ledeburite
161
The Most Important Lines
162
The Transformation of Eutectoid Steel of 0 90 Per Cent of Carbon in Cooling
164
222A The Quantitative Course of the Transformation of this 0 90 Carbon Steel
165
Solidification and Transformation of Hypoeutectoid Steel of 0 40 Per Cent of Carbon
166
The Eutectoid Stage
167
Summary
168
Progress of the Transformation in Rising Temperature Illustrated Micrographically
169
Reason for the Type of Structure which Arises during the Transformation and Char acterizes Slowly Cooled Hypoeutectoid Steel
170
The Network Structure Represents an Intermediate Stage of the General Structural Development
171
Martensite The Hardening of Steel Cf 96 and 228
174
Martensitization through Obstruction
175
The Explanation of Hardening
176
241A The Reversing and the Cumulative Methods of Hardening
177
241B Examination of the Reversing Methods of Hardening
178
Hardening is Allotropic
183
The Beta Theory
184
The Gamma Theory
186
Additional Evidence for the Beta Theory
187
The Amorphous Theory
191
Crystallographic Amorphizing
193
Objections to the Amorphous Theory
194
Stress Theory
195
Summary of the Discussion of the Cause of Hardening
196
Steel of 0 22 Per Cent of Carbon
197
The Genesis of the Microstructure of this 0 22 Carbon Steel
198
Steel? of 0 00 Carbon Ordinate AO Fig 23
199
Steel of 1 45 Per Cent Carbon
200
The Quantitative Progress of Solidification and Transformation
201
The Quantity of Proeutectoid Cementite
202
Incipient Fusion of a Noneutectiferous Steel may Give Rise to a Eutectic
204
CHAPTER 10
205
The Quantitative Progress of the Transformation
206
The Transformations in 3 Per Cent Carbon Hypoeutectic Cast Iron
207
The Microstructure Obscured by Pearlite Divorce
209
The Microstructure Obscured by Undercooling
210
The Transformations of Hypereutectic Cast Iron
211
The Solidification is Selective
212
The Eutectic and the Eutectoid
213
Boundaries of the Transformation Range
214
CHAPTER 11
215
Graphitization shown Micrographically
216
Castiron Foundry Practice
218
The Length of Time Available for Graphitization
219
What Cementite is it that Graphitizes?
220
Mechanism of the Mitigation of Carbon from a Cementite Mass to a Graphite Mass by Solid Sublimation
222
Control of Graphitization in Making Blackheart Malleable Castings 323
223
Control of Graphitization in Making Grayiron Castings
224
Supporting Evidence from the Charcoal Blastfurnace Process
225
The Influence of the Rate of Cooling on the Quantity and Size of the Graphite Particles
226
Conditions in Making Chilled Castiron Car Wheels
227
Difference between the Dark Spots in Mottled Castings and the Graphitic Areas in Malleable Castings
228
The Kish and Primary Cementite Phenomena
229
Section Page
231
Reversibility and Lag
237
Jurisdiction of the Phase Rule
246
The Ironcarbon Compounds
254
The Evidence that the Metals are Crystalline
260
Section Page 341 Motion Planes
263
Dendritic Crystals
264
Basrelief Dendrites
265
Each Grain or Cell of a Pure Metal a Crystal
266
Meaning of Grain
268
The Crystalline Structure of Iron
269
Silhouettes
270
The Crystalline Axes
271
The Octahedron
272
This Coexistence in the Polyhedral Grains
273
Reciprocal Truncation of Cubes and Octahedra
274
The Intersections of Crystalline Planes
275
The Crystalline Constitution of Carbon Steel
276
Grains of Austenite and of Pearlite
277
The Banded Structure
278
CHAPTER 14
279
Each Austenite Grain an Organism with the Power of Expelling Foreign Matter to its Surfaces and to its Cleavages
280
Mechanism of the Expulsion of the Proeutectoid Element
282
High Organization of a Crystalline Grain
283
The Geometrical Etching Figures
284
The Etching Figures are Most Regular on Crystallographic Planes
286
The Regularity of the Etching Pits after Great Plastic Deformation
287
Does the Retention of the Cubic Form during the Growth of Etching Pits Result from a Common Initial Concentric Cubic Grouping?
288
Directness of the Proof of Crystalline Structure from the Geometry of the Etching Figures and Pits
289
The Air Bubbles are Negative Crystals
290
Geometrical Shape of Pressure Pits
291
CHAPTER 15
293
Crystalline and Noncrystalline Movements
294
Nomenclature Rotary and Vectorial Movement
295
Rupture and Fracture
296
The Common Paths of Deformation
297
Lines of Luders
298
Irregular Paths of Deformation
299
Scale of the Deviation from Smoothness
300
Example of the Development of Luders Lines on a Finegrained Steel Tensile Test Piece
301
Example of the Development of the Lines of Luders in a Coarsegrained Steel
302
Development of Luders Lines in a Normal Structural Steel
303
Deviation of the Lines of Luders from the Direction of Maximum Shearing Stress
304
Interpretation ofthe Geometrical Arrangement of the Luders Lines
305
Noncrystalline Internal Surfaces of Weakness
306
Amorphous Smearing of Metallic Surfaces Prepared for Microscopic Examination
307
CHAPTER 16
308
Examination of Certain Cases of Grain Uplift
309
Suggestions of Grain Uplift Difficult to Interpret
310
Inadequacy of Block Movement 311
311
Fluid Foldings
312
The First Appearance of Slip Bands
313
Their Development
314
Section Page 432 Introduction
324
The Silhouettes in Iron
325
On the Octahedral Truncation
326
To what Crystallographic Directions are the Slip Bands in Iron Parallel?
327
The Slip Planes in Austenite are Octahedral
328
Other Manifestations of the Octahedral Structure 329
329
On the Cubic Face
330
On the Rhombododecahedral Truncation
331
The Three Planes of Ferrite Collectively
332
The Slip Bands in Beta Iron Fig 39
333
CHAPTER 18
335
Similes to Explain the Mechanism of Slip
336
An Alternative Mechanism of Slip after Osmond and Cartaud
338
Discussion of the Slip Band Theory of Osmond and Cartaud
339
The Movement not of Crystal Units but of Blocks of Units
340
Slip may be in Three Directions
341
The Straightness and Geometrical Direction of Slip Bands
342
Secondary Steplets
343
General Considerations as to the Visibility of the Slip Bands under Varying Conditions of Illumination
345
Reappearance of Bright Risers on Rotating 180 under Oblique Illumination
347
The Optical Behavior of Slip Bands is Suggestive of Fluid Folds rather than of Crys
348
tallographic Plane Risers
349
Detailed Reasons for these Suggestions
350
Slip Bands Imply the Localizing of Deformation
351
The Hardening and Like Effects of Plastic Deformation Point to Slip
352
Section Page 478 Introduction
354
Because of Disregistry Slip should Generate Amorphous Metal at the Grain Bound aries
355
The End Support Hypothesis Applies also to Twinning
356
Consequences to be Expected from the Progressive Accumulation of Stronger Amor phous Metal about the Grain Boundaries
357
The Median Slip Planes should be Effectively Weaker than the Lateral Ones
358
Direct Tensile Tests of Coarse and Fine Silicon Steel
363
Refining Coarse Grain by Heat Increases the Hardness
364
Grain Coarsening by Overheating Weakens More than it Softens
366
The Way in Which Slip Bands Originate and Propagate is Consistent with the Theory that Disregistry Opposes Slip
367
Why the Slip Bands Curve
368
The Genetic Rigidity of Ferrite Helps Explain the Irregularity of its Slip Bands
369
An Additional Reason why the Slip Bands in Ferrite Curve
370
Why the Slip Bands Change Direction at their Ends
371
Resolution of the Slip Steps into Permanent Elongation and Contraction of Area
372
CHAPTER 20
373
Beilbys Amorphous Theory of Crystalline Slip
374
The Essence of Plasticity
375
Annealing
376
The Tensile Properties
377
The Increase in the Solution Pressure
378
Section Page 520 The Effacement of the Effects of Plastic Deformation by Reheating
379
Continuity is Retained
380
Objections to Beilbys Amorphous Theory
381
Alternative Explanations of Plasticity
382
Why Repetitive Plastic Deformation Causes Anisotropy of the Elastic Limit
383
Why Anisotropy after Repetitive Plastic Deformation is Replaced by Isotropy after a Single Deformation
385
Present Position of the Amorphous Theory
386
CHAPTER 21
387
The Reason
388
That the Slip is in the Ferrite Helps to Explain the Influence of Carbon on the Tensile Properties
389
Is the Obstruction Theory Competent Quantitatively to Explain the Increase of Strength Caused by Increasing Carbon Content?
390
The Ferriterefinement Theory of the Increase of Tensile and Elastic Strength with the Carbon Content
392
Other Cases in which the Grain Size of the Ferrite may be Important
393
The Tempering Phenomena
395
Intrapearlitic Deformation
396
Deformation Lines on the Previously Polished Surfaces of Pearlite
397
Deformation Lines on the Previously Polished Surface of Sorbite
398
CHAPTER 22
400
Twinning in Idiomorphic Crystals
401
A Simile
402
Artificial or Secondary Twinning of Native Minerals
404
Twinning in MetalsCongenital Mechanical and Annealing Twins
405
Congenital Twinning
406
Recognizing Twinning in Metallic Sections
407
Zigzagging of Slip Bands as Evidence of Twinning
408
Sequence of Operations Needed to Disclose Twinning by Means of Slip Bands
409
Parallelsided Zones as Evidence of Twinning
410
Their Dynamic Origin Suggests that They are Twins
411
That They do not Affect the Hardness Suggests that They are Twins
412
Annealing Twinning does not Disturb Previously Polished Surfaces
413
Twinning is Geometrical
414
CHAPTER 23
415
Their General Appearance
416
Possible Neumann Bands
417
A Nodal Etching Effect
418
The Furrows
419
Their Profiles
420
Fringes
421
Thorns and Boundary Edgings
422
Conditions under which Neumann Lamella Form
423
The Removal of the Neumann Lamella
424
The Neumann Bands are Outcrops of Strata
425
Neumann Bands are Distinguished from Slip Bands
426
Cubic Neumann Bands
428
Curvature and Variance of Neumann Bands
429
Parallelism of the Neumann Bands to the Slip Bands
430
Parallel Neumann Lamella have Identical Internal Orientation
431
Additional Evidence from the Parallelism of the Variations in Etching Tint in Forcibly Enspiralled Neumann Lamellae
432
Additional Evidence from the Zigzagging of the Slip Bands
433
The Internal Structure of the Neumann Lamella though Differently Oriented is Like that of the Enclosing Metal
434
Are the Neumann Lamella? True Twins?
435
The Contacts between the Neumann Lamellae and the Enclosing Metal are Planes of Low Cohesion
436
On Crossing Each Other
437
The Deformation of Austenite and the Martensitic Structure
438
Mechanical Twins in Other Metals
439
Mechanism of Twinning Section Page 610 Twinning by Wheeling and by Facing About
441
Evidence that the Neumann Lamella Form by Wheeling
442
Evidence that Annealing Twins Form by Facing About
443
Twinning and Slip Band Mechanism of Osmond and Cartaud
444
Application of this Mechanism to Twinning Lamella
445
Discussion of the Twinning Mechanism of Osmond and Cartaud Slip Bands Due not to Twinning but to Slip
446
Additional Reasons for Referring Slip Bands to Slip
447
Summary of the Discussion
448
Reciprocal Faulting of Neumann Bands
449
The Formation of Neumann Lamella is not an Important Cause of Plastic Deforma tion
450
Annealing Twinning Probably does not Contribute Greatly to Plastic Deformation
451
CHAPTER 25
452
Rosenhains Observations
453
What are the X Bands?
454
Influence of Rest and Heating on the Hardness caused by Plastic Deformation
455
Influence of the Degree of Deformation on the Brinell Hardness Determined Imme diately Afterward
457
Parallel Effects on Tin
458
Do the X Bands Represent Twins?
459
Summary
460
Annealing Twins
461
Their Characteristics
462
Hardening and Magnetization
463
The Chief Reasons for the Usefulness of this Alloy
464
The Increase of the Apparent Hardness caused by Varying the Brinell Test
465
The Apparent Persistency of the Manganese Steel Lines
467
The Apparent Persistency of the Manganese Steel Lines on Heating
468
Causes of the Formation of the Etching Lines
469
Cementite
470
A Eutectiform Pattern
471
Is the Eutectiform Pattern Related to the Structure of the Underlying Metal?
472
Eutectic or Eutectoid
473
The Surface Bands are Slip Bands
474
B Their Relation to the Twinned Zones
475
F The Apparent Persistency of these Surface Bands is Compatible with their being Slip Bands
476
The Nature of the Heated Etching Bands
477
CHAPTER 27
479
Evidences of Fluid Motion
480
A Suggestion of Fluid Motion
481
Even this Evidence shows that the Motion is Preponderatingly Crystalline
482
The Progressive Accumulation of Amorphous Metal during Deformation should Cause the Motion to become Partly Fluid in Essence
483
This Principle may Explain the Progressiveness of the Change in the Etching Tint in Twisted Neumann Lamella1
484
Why are the Etching Pits so Much More Regular than the Slip Bands after Great Deformation?
485
The Units which Move in Plastic Deformation are very Minute in Chemically Homo geneous Masses but not in Chemically Heterogeneous Ones
486
Summary
487
CHAPTER 28
489
Conditions under which the Path of Rupture is Intergranular
490
Other Metals Yield an Intergranular Fracture near their Melting Points
491
The Path of Rupture in Steel made Intergranular by Previous Heating in very Gently Oxidizing Gas
492
Section Paoe 692 Intergranular Brittleness caused by Heating in Hydrogen
493
Cause of the Embrittlement of the Supposed Cement
494
Why Deformation and Rupture Avoid the Grain Boundaries
496
Is the Amorphous Boundary Filling Competent to Cause Appreciable Boundary Strength?
497
Evidence of the Existence of the Amorphous Boundary Filling
498
The Intergranular Rupture at High Temperatures Argues for the Existence of the Amorphous Boundary Filling
499
Evidence that there is Contact Confusion of Orientation
500
Genesis of Contact Interlocking and Confusion
501
Effacement of Interlacing by Grain Growth and Grain Regeneration
502
Width of the Supposed Strong Contact Region
503
Evidence of the Width of any Mixed Contact Region
504
The Width of the Avoided Region is of a Higher Order of Magnitude than that of the Supposed Strong Contact Region
505
Summary of the Discussion of the Causes of Grain Boundary Avoidance by Deforma tion and Rupture
506
Relative Preference of the Path of Rupture for Ferrite and Pearlite 713 Introduction
509
The Path of Rupture in Hypoeutectoid Steel
510
The Preference of the Path of Rupture for Ferrite is Reported to be Inversely as the Degree of Deformation
512
The Effectiveness of the Preference for Ferrite is Inversely as the Carbon Content My Experiments
515
The Effectiveness of the Preference for Ferrite is Probably Inversely as the Network Size
516
Difficulty of Avoiding Pearlite in Crossing the Widmanstiittian Structure
517
Preference of Rupture for Slag Masses
518
Even those Slag Bodies through which Rupture does not Pass may Weaken the Mass
519
The Strengthening of the Ferrite during Deformation may Lessen its Attraction for the Path of Rupture
520
Contrast between the Upheaval of Ferrite on Polished Surfaces and the Slightness of the Preference of Rupture for Ferrite
521
Why the Preference for Ferrite is Relatively Marked in Rupture caused by Shock
522
The Notched Bar Impact Test
524
Skction Page 730 Why a Crack may Have but Moderate Effect
525
Why the Preference of Rupture for the Cementite Partings of Hypereutectic Steel is so Much Greater than for the Ferrite Partings of Hypoeutectoid St...
526
CHAPTER 30
527
The Internal Surfaces of Weakness
529
Crystalline Fractures
530
Crystalline Fractures Accompanied by High Crystalline Organization
532
Slaty and Fibrous Structures
534
The General Division of His Fractures
536
The Refining of the Coarse Hackly Fracture
537
The Combination of Coarseness with Hackliness
539
Composite Fractures which are in Part G
540
Coarse Crystalline Martensitic Fracture
541
E the Fine Crystalline Martensitic Fracture
542
The Dull Coarse Crystalline Fracture
543
Composite Fractures
544
Cement and Hardening Carbon
545
CHAPTER 31
546
Illustration of the Fibrous Structure
547
Fibrous Wrought Iron Differs from Crystalline not in Containing More Slag but in being More Ductile
548
Slag
549
Influence of Phosphorus Content on Ghosts
550
Ferrite Ghosts in Steel and Slag Banding in Wrought Iron
551
Reasons for the Dendritic Form
552
Section Page 774 Solidification of the Landlocking Type Opposes that of the Onion Type Favors Upper axial Segregation
553
The Columnar Structure
555
Ghosts Caused by the Interdendritic Concentration of Nonferrous Matter
556
Evidence for this Hypothesis of Ghost Formation
557
Lightness Referable in Part to Impurity
558
The Development of Ferrite Bands by Cooling Slowly through the Transformation Range
559
The Mechanism of the Ghost Formation
560
Does Phosphorus Increase the Generation of Proeutectoid Ferrite by the Mother Austenite?
561
The Ferrite Banding caused by Reheating Quenched and Bandless Steel
562
The Banding caused by Reheating Quenched Steel Represents Greater Mobility of the Phosphoric Ferrite
563
Persistence of Dendritic Segregation
564
CHAPTER 32
566
Mitigation in Plate Rolling
567
In Direct Rolling
568
Advantages Claimed for Direct Rolling
569
What Disposal of the Fiber is the Best?
570
The Last Passes should Have a Preponderating Influence on the Direction of Fiber
571
Evidence that the Influence of the Direction of the Earlier Passes Persists
572
Multiple Reversals of the Direction of Rolling
573
Wrought Iron vs Steel
577
Elongation vs Contraction of Area
578
The Strut Effect of the Pearlite Decreases the Deficit of Transverse Strength
579
Fiber in Steel Ingots
580
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Page 58 - This name is also applied loosely to molten cast iron which is about to be so cast into pigs or is in a condition in which it could readily be cast into pigs.
Page 6 - And the man of God said, Where fell it ? And he shewed him the place. And he cut down a stick, and cast it in thither; and the iron did swim. Therefore said he, Take it up to thee. And he put out his hand, and took it.
Page 6 - Even so did we seize the fiery-pointed brand and whirled it round in his eye, and the blood flowed about the heated bar. And the breath of the flame singed his eyelids and brows all about, as the ball of the eye burnt away, and the roots thereof crackled in the flame. And as when a smith dips an axe or adze in chill water with a great hissing, when he would temper it — for hereby anon comes the strength of iron — even so did his eye hiss round the stake of olive.
Page 58 - Britain) firmly established meaning of "wrought iron." Mottled Pig Iron and Mottled Cast Iron, pig iron and cast iron the structure of which is mottled, with white parts in which no graphite is seen, and gray parts in which graphite is seen.
Page 60 - Gray Pig Iron and Gray Cast Iron. — Pig iron and cast iron in the fracture of which the iron itself is nearly or quite concealed by graphite, so that the fracture has the gray color of graphite.
Page 58 - Malleable Pig Iron. — An American trade name for the pig iron suitable for converting into malleable castings through the process of melting, treating when molten, casting in a brittle state, and then making malleable without remelting.
Page 56 - Refined Cast Iron. — Cast iron which has had most of its silicon removed in the refinery furnace, but still contains so much carbon as to be distinctly cast iron. Shear Steel. — Steel, usually in the form of bars, made from blister steel by shearing it into short lengths, piling, and welding these by rolling or hammering them at a welding heat. If this process of shearing, piling, etc., is repeated, the product is called "double shear steel.
Page vii - ... a dynamic power which operates against intellectual stagnation ; and even by provoking opposition is eventually of service to the cause of truth. It would however have been remarkable if, among the ranks of geologists themselves, men were not found to seek an explanation of...
Page 58 - Steel which owes its distinctive properties chiefly to some element or elements other than carbon, or jointly to such other elements and carbon.
Page 57 - ... their carbon from the state of cementite into that of temper graphite, or by removing most of it by oxidation, or by both means jointly. In both cases the malleabilizing is done by close annealing, usually in contact with an oxidizing agent. Thus, there are two classes of commercial...

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