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allotropic alloy amount annealing austenite basic open-hearth bath Bessemer process blast furnace blow blow-holes bottom brittle burned cast iron cementite cent charcoal charge chemical coal coke combined carbon combustion compounds containing converter cooling corrosion crucible crucible steel crystals cupola decrease diameter dissolved ductility effect electric elements eutectic ferrite flame foundry freezing fuel gases graphite hardened hardness hearth heat hydrogen impurities inch increase ingots iron and steel iron oxide ladle layer less liable lime liquid magnetic malleable cast manganese material melting metal metallurgy minutes mold molten nickel nickel-steel open-hearth furnace open-hearth process open-hearth steel operation oxygen pearlite phosphorus piece pig iron pipe plate poured practice precipitated pressure produced reaction recarburizer reduced rolls sand scrap shown in Fig silica silicon slag smelting zone solid solution solidification steel castings strength sulphur surface temperature tion tuyeres usually weight wrought iron
Page 494 - B. tu) is the amount of heat required to raise one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit; a calorie is the amount of heat required to raise one gram of water one degree
Page 523 - American Foundry Practice." Treating of Loam, Dry-Sand and Green-Sand Molding, and containing a Practical Treatise upon the Management of Cupolas and the Melting of Iron. Published in New York.
Page 7 - Gray Pig Iron and Gray Cast Iron.—Pig iron and cast iron in the fracture of which the iron itself is nearly or quite concealed by graphite, so that the fracture has the gray color of graphite. White Pig Iron and White Cast Iron.—Pig iron and cast iron in the fracture of which little or no graphite is visible, so that their fracture is silvery and white.
Page 7 - definition of steel the first sentence ("is malleable at least in some one range of temperature") distinguishes steel from cast iron and pig iron; the second sentence ("is cast into an initially malleable mass") distinguishes it from malleable cast iron, and the third sentence ("is capable of hardening greatly by sudden cooling") distinguishes it from wrought iron.
Page 275 - a metallic alloy is a substance possessing the general physical properties of a metal, but consisting of two or more metals, or of metals with non-metallic bodies, in intimate mixture, solution, or combination with one another, forming, when melted, a homogeneous fluid.
Page 395 - which is really a quarternary steel, containing both nickel and chromium, the most important uses of nickel steel are for structural work in bridges, railroad rails, especially on curves, steel castings, ordnance, engine forgings, shafting, especially marine shafting, frame and engine parts for automobiles, wire cables, axles, especially for automobiles and railroad cars, etc.,
Page 4 - iron is almost the same as the very low-carbon steels, except that it is never produced by melting and casting in a mold, but is always forged to the desired size and form. It usually contains less than 0.12 per cent, of carbon. Its chief distinction from the low-carbon steels is that it is made by a process which finishes it in a pasty, instead of
Page 7 - Malleable Cast Iron.—Iron which when first made is cast in the condition of cast iron, and is made malleable by subsequent treatment without fusion. Malleable