The Parallel Curriculum: A Design to Develop High Potential and Challenge High-Ability Learners

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Corwin Press, 2002 - Education - 270 pages
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This book presents a model of curriculum development for gifted students and offers four parallel approaches that focus on ascending intellectual demand as students develop expertise in learning. The parallel curriculum's four approaches include: (1) the core or basic curriculum; (2) the curriculum of connections, which expands on the core curriculum's key concepts and principles; (3) the curriculum of practice, which encourages students to function in a discipline with increasing expertise; and (4) the curriculum of identity, which helps students see themselves in relation to the discipline. Individual chapters address the following topics: the rationale for an evolving conception of curriculum to develop expertise; an overview of the Parallel Curriculum Model; the essentials of curriculum design; the core curriculum parallel; the curriculum of connections parallel; the curriculum of practice parallel; the curriculum of identity parallel; and making decisions about the use of the Parallel Curriculum Model. Each of the chapters detailing the four curriculum approaches discusses the meaning of the approach, key features and characteristics of the approach, content and standards, teaching methods, assessment, learning activities, resources, and modifications based on learner need. An extended example of each curriculum approach completes these chapters. (Contains 75 references.) (DB)
 

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Contents

The Rationale for an Evolving Conception of Curriculum to Develop Expertise
1
Changing Views of Inteiigence and Giftedness
2
The Need to Explore Similarities and Differences in Curriculum for All Learners and for Gifted Learners
3
A Need to Honor the Post by Building to the Future
5
Theories of Knowledge
6
Selected Concepts From Theories of Curriculum and Instruction
9
Process Development
10
A Product Orientation
11
Why Should a Teacher Emphasize Connections and Relationships?
129
When Should 1 Use This Parallel?
131
Choosing Appropriate Content and Learning Objectives to Support a Curriculum of Connections
136
Keoras Cultures Curriculum
140
Remodeling Examples
141
We Read About ft
142
lntegrating Subjects
143
Summary
144

Ascending 1ntellectual Demand in the Parallel Curriculum Model
12
Student Affect and the Parallel Curriculum Model
14
An Overview of the Parallel Curriculum Model
17
A Look at the Four Curriculum Parallels
19
The Nature of the Effective Core Curriculum
20
Ascending lntellectual Demand and the Core Curriculum
21
CloseUps of the Core Curriculum
22
The Nature of the Curriculum of Connections
23
Ascending lntellectual Demand and the Curriculum of Connections
25
CloseUps of the Curriculum of Connections
26
The Nature of the Curriculum of Practice
28
Ascending Intellectual Demand and the Curriculum of Practice
31
CloseUps of the Curriculum of Practice
32
The Nature of the Curriculum of ldentity
35
Ascending lntellectual Demand and the Curriculum of ldentity
38
CloseUps of the Curriculum of ldentity
40
A Curriculum Combining Parallels
41
Looking Ahead in the Book
42
The Essentials of Curriculum Design
43
Components of a Comprehensive Curriculum Plan
45
1 ContentStandards
48
3 lntroductory Activities
52
4 Teaching Methods
53
5 Learning Activities
56
6 Grouping Strategies
60
7 Products
61
9 Extension Activities
63
10 Modifications Based on Learner Need
64
A Capsule of Components of Comprehensive Curriculum
65
Comprehensive Curriculum Framework One Teachers Approaches
67
Revising the Teachers Guide Assessment
70
Planning the lntroduction to the Unit
72
Finding Resources for the Unit
76
Developing Products for the Unit
77
Modifying Basic Plans in Response to Learner Needs
78
Looking Back and Ahead
79
The Core Curriculum Parallel
81
Why Four Approaches to Curriculum Design? 1snt One Good Enough?
82
Form Follows Function
83
Architectural Design
84
What Is Core in the Core Curriculum Parallel?
85
What Is the Purpose of the Core Curriculum Parallel?
86
How Are the Key Curriculum Components Reconfigured to Achieve the Goals of the Core Curriculum Parallel?
88
Assessment Strategies and the Core Curriculum Parallel
94
Introductory Activities in the Core Curriculum Parallel
97
Revising the Remaining Curriculum Components to Address the Goals of the Core Curriculum Parallel
99
Teaching Methods and the Core Curriculum Parallel
100
Learning Activities and the Core Curriculum Parallel
101
Resources in the Core Curriculum Parallel
102
Core Curriculum Parallel
103
Modification for Learner Need and Ascending lntellectual Demand in the Core Curriculum Parallel
105
Determining Content
106
Planning Assessment Strategies
115
Planning Introductory Activities
116
Selecting Teaching and Learning Activities Grouping Strategies Resources and Products
118
Choosing Extension Activities
121
Modifying Plans Based on Learner Need lncluding Ascending lntellectual Demand
122
Looking Back and Ahead
123
of Connections Parallel
125
What 1s the Curriculum of Connections?
127
Focusing Questions in the Curriculum of Connections
128
Introductory Activities in a Curriculum of Connections
146
Teaching Strategies in a Curriculum of Connections
147
Learning Activities in a Curriculum of Connections
148
Products Grouping Strategies and Extension Activities in the Curriculum of Connections
149
Differentiation and Ascending fnteffectuaf Demand in the Curriculum of Connections
150
Resources
154
Blending Content Decisions and Grouping Strategies
155
Teaching Methods and Learning Activities
156
Student Products and Assessments
157
Introductory Activities
158
Modifications in Response to Learner Need lncluding Ascending lntellectual Demand
159
Lydias Reflections
160
Looking Back and Ahead
161
The Curriculum of Practice Parallel
163
What Does 1t Mean to Practice in a Curriculum?
164
Why Does It Matter to Have Students Engage in a Curriculum of Practice?
166
Key Features of the Key Components of Curriculum in the Curriculum of Practice
173
Assessment in the Curriculum of Practice
178
lntroductory Activities and the Curriculum of Practice
179
Learning Activities and the Curriculum of Practice
180
An Example of Simulating the Role of an Expert Practitioner
181
An Example of Becoming Expert Practitioners in a Field of Study
184
Resources in the Curriculum of Practice
185
Extension Activities in the Curriculum of Practice
187
Student Grouping in the Curriculum of Practice
188
Modifications Based on Learner Need lncluding Ascending lntellectual Demand
190
Summary
191
An Example of the Curriculum of Practice
192
Gathering the Resources
194
Developing Extension Activities
198
Planning for Student Grouping
205
Looking Back and Ahead
207
The Curriculum of Identity Parallel
209
What Does 1dentity Mean in the Curriculum of Identity?
210
Why Should We Be Concerned About a Students Identity?
212
What Are the Key Features and Characteristics of Curriculum Components Within the Curriculum of Identity?
214
ContentStandards in the Curriculum of ldentity
215
2 Assessments in the Curriculum of ldentity
221
3 Introductory Activities in the Curriculum of ldentity
225
4 Teaching Methods in the Curriculum of ldentity
228
5 Learning Activities in the Curriculum of ldentity
229
6 Grouping Strategies in the Curriculum of identity
230
7 Resources in the Curriculum of ldentity
231
8 Products in the Curriculum of ldentity
232
Ascending lntellectual Demand in the Curriculum of ldentity
233
An Example of the Curriculum of Identity
235
Adapting the Components of the Curriculum of ldentity Based on Learner Need lncluding Ascending lntellectual Demand
247
Looking Back and Ahead
249
Making Decisions About the Use of the Parallel Curriculum Model
251
Flexible Options for Using the Parallel Curriculum Model
252
Parallels to Build From a Common Foundation
253
A Layered Approach to Using the Parallels
254
Using the Parallels for Varied Purposes Within a Singie Unit
255
Designing lndividual Learning Pathways Using the Parallel Curriculum Model
258
Extending Your Options Using the Parallels
260
The Nature of the Students
261
The Nature of the Teacher
262
Teaching the Curriculum
263
Looking Back and Looking Ahead
264
References
267
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About the author (2002)

Carol Ann Tomlinson‘s career as an educator includes 21 years as a public school teacher. She taught in high school, preschool, and middle school, and worked with heterogeneous classes as well as special classes for students identified as gifted and students with learning difficulties. Her public school career also included 12 years as a program administrator of special services for advanced and struggling learners. She was Virginia’s Teacher of the Year in 1974. She is professor of educational leadership, foundations, and policy at the University of Virginia’s Curry School of Education; a researcher for the National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented; a codirector of the University of Virginia’s Summer Institute on Academic Diversity; and president of the National Association for Gifted Children. Special interests throughout her career have included curriculum and instruction for advanced learners and struggling learners, effective instruction in heterogeneous settings, and bridging the fields of general education and gifted education. She is author of over 100 articles, book chapters, books, and other professional development materials, including How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms, The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners, Leadership for Differentiated Schools and Classrooms, the facilitator’s guide for the video staff development sets called Differentiating Instruction, and At Work in the Differentiated Classroom, as well as a professional inquiry kit on differentiation. She works throughout the United States and abroad with teachers whose goal is to develop more responsive heterogeneous classrooms.

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