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Fundamental Laws Vaie
First Law of Thermodynamics
Second Law of Thermodynamics
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according activity coefficient alloy assumed atmosphere atoms basic bath blast furnace Boudourd cal/deg/mol calculated carbon carburization cell Chap Chem chemical potential Chipman CO/CO2 mixture components composition compounds concentration curves decarburization decomposition decreases diffusion dissociation pressure electrons elements enthalpy entropy equation VII equilibrium constant evolution pressure Example Fe3C formation free energy gaseous gases given temperature heat capacity Henry's law high temperatures hydrogen impurities increases internal energy ions iron oxides kcal liquid iron metal metallurgy mol fraction mole molecules nitrogen obtained open-hearth oxygen oxygen potential partial pressure phase diagram plot pure Raoult's Raoult's law ratio reactants reaction reduction saturated Schenck silica silicon SiO2 slag solid solution solubility solvent steelmaking substance sulphides sulphur takes place Thermodynamics tion Trans ture vapour pressure various temperatures velocity zero zinc