The random spatial economy and its evolution
This volume, spanning a lifetime's research, is a highly innovative first attempt at a consistent theoretical approach to the elements, structures and dynamics of the geography of agents, settlements and trade. Cause and effect are replaced by chance within constraints. Populations are substituted for unreal representative individuals, variability for uniformity, probabilistic process for unique history. Ignorance is a major factor in interpersonal and inter-areal commercial relations so that the focus is on flows of information and their effects on the efficiency of the economy or, alternatively, on changes in its information content. Recent work on spatial arrangements in many physical and social sciences is incorporated but always interpreted from an overriding geographical viewpoint. Key concepts are locational potential, distance friction, mobility, diffusion, spatial pattern and texture, adaptability, efficiency, spatial interaction and dependence. Analytic methods include autocovariance and transfer functions, areal special densities and entropy. Various forms of self-organization of economic spatial patterns are examined.
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Formalised Behaviour in Agents Markets
Factor Returns and Geography
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agents allocation areal entropy assume autocorrelation autocovariance autocovariance function average behavior central place choice coefficient commodity competition constraints covariance curve decrease defined degree demand density depends deterministic differentiation diffusion distance distribution economic effect efficiency environment equal equation equilibrium evolution exist exponential factors flows fluctuations frequency Geographical Analysis gradient gravity hypercycle income increase independent indifference curves individual inefficient interaction labour Leslie Curry linear Lotka-Volterra equations marginal marginal utility Markov chain Mathematical matrix mean measure migration negative obtained occupations occur operator opportunities pattern population possible potential potential theory preferences probabilistic probability problem production random variable random walk REGIONAL SCIENCE relative represents scale solution space spatial structure spectral density spectrum stochastic stochastic processes supply and demand theory tion trade transfer function transport costs University of Toronto utility function vacancies values variance zero