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The Role of Basic Functional Biocoenotic Groups
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aboveground activity annual aspen average biogeocoenotic biological cycling biomass bird cherry branches Central Chernozem Reserve changes common vole control sections control trees crown damaged sections damaged trees decrease of growth defoliation difference dry weight dynamics ecosystems ejections excrement foliage forage forest-steppe forest-steppe ecosystem grass canopy grass stand herbivorous humidity humus impact increased influence invertebrates kg/ha larvae layer of air leaf area index leaf surface leaf-eating insects legumes litter litterfall lower layer meadow-steppe mesofauna microorganisms mineralization moisture moose Moscow nitrogen oak groves oak leaf roller observed organic material outbreak centers outbreak localities period of outbreak photosynthesis phytomass phytophages plant litterfall Publishing House quantity ravines regime rhizome roe deer role saprophages sections populated shoots significant soil Spalax species steppe Table tap root temperature tree stands trunk undamaged undergrowth ungulates upper layer USSR variants various vegetative period vole colonies watershed oak forests woody zoogenic zoomass