The Science of Chocolate

Front Cover
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2000 - Cooking - 175 pages
Chocolate is available to today's consumers in a variety of colours, shapes and textures. But how many of us, as we savour our favourite brand, consider the science that has gone into its manufacture? This book describes the complete chocolate making process, from the growing of the beans to the sale in the shops. The Science of Chocolate first describes the history of this intriguing substance. Subsequent chapters cover the ingredients and processing techniques, enabling the reader to discover not only how confectionery is made but also how basic science plays a vital role with coverage of scientific principles such as latent and specific heat, Maillard reactions and enzyme processes. There is also discussion of the monitoring and controlling of the production process, and the importance, and variety, of the packaging used today. A series of experiments, which can be adapted to suit students of almost any age, is included to demonstrate the physical, chemical or mathematical principles involved. Ideal for those studying food science or about to join the confectionery industry, this mouth-watering title will also be of interest to anyone with a desire to know more about the production of the world's favourite confectionery.
 

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Contents

The History of Chocolate
1
Eating Chocolate
3
Chocolate Crumb
6
Chocolate is Good For You
7
Chocolate Ingredients
8
Commercial CocoaProducing Countries
9
Cocoa Pods
10
Fermentation
12
Some Types of NonCocoa Vegetable Fat
97
Cocoa Butter Equivalents
98
Enzyme Interesterification
99
Lauric Fat Cocoa Butter Replacers
100
NonLauric Fat Cocoa Butter Replacers
101
Low Calorie Fats
102
References
103
Manufacturing Chocolate Products
104

Drying
15
Storage and Transport
16
Sugar and Sugar Substitutes
17
Crystalline and Amorphous Sugar
18
Lactose
21
Sugar Alcohols
22
Polydextrose
23
Milk Fat
24
Milk Proteins
25
Milk Powders
26
Whey and Lactose Powders
29
References
30
Cocoa Bean Processing
31
Roasting and Winnowing
32
Winnowing
35
Bean Roasting
36
Chemical Changes During Roasting
38
Grinding Cocoa Nib
40
Cocoa Mills
42
Cocoa Butter and Cocoa Powder Production
45
Cocoa Butter
46
Cocoa Powder
47
References
48
Liquid Chocolate Making
49
Chocolate Milling
51
Combined Milling
53
Chocolate Conching
57
Viscosity Reduction
58
Conching Machines
60
The Three Stages of Conching
64
References
65
Controlling the Flow Properties of Liquid Chocolate
66
Viscosity
67
Particle Size
69
The Effect of Particle Size upon Viscosity
71
The Effect of Fat Additions upon Viscosity
74
Moisture and Chocolate Flow
76
Emulsifiers and Chocolate Viscosity
77
Lecithin
78
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate
81
Other Emulsifiers
82
References
84
Crystallising the Fat in Chocolate
85
Different Crystalline Forms
88
Precrystallisation or Tempering
91
Mixing Different Fats Fat Eutectics
93
Chocolate Fat Bloom
96
Tempering Machines
105
Temper Measurement
107
Moulding
109
Chocolate Shells
111
Enrobers
115
Maintaining Tempered Chocolate
118
Solidifying the Chocolate
119
Coolers
120
Panning
121
Chocolate Coating
122
Sugar Panning
124
References
126
Analytical Techniques
127
Moisture Determination
129
Fat Content Measurement
131
Viscosity Determination
133
The Standard Method
134
Flavour
136
Texture Monitoring
138
Crystallisation Amount and Type
140
References
142
Chocolate Products and Packaging
143
Nutrition
144
Packaging
146
Foil and Paper Wrap
147
FlowWrap
149
Robotic Packing
150
Experiments with Chocolate and Chocolate Products
152
Particle Separation
153
Fat Migration
154
Cocoa Butter Separation
155
Chocolate Viscosity
156
Particle Size of Chocolate
157
Effect of Lecithin
159
Chocolate Temper
160
Hardness Measurement
161
Chocolate Composition and Product Weight Control
162
Distributions and Probabilities
163
Chromatography of Colours
164
The Effectiveness of Different Packaging Materials
165
Viscosity and Flavour
166
Heat Resistance Testing
167
Coefficient of Expansion
168
The Maillard Reaction
169
Subject Index
170
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