The Statistical Approach to Social Measurement
This book is based on the assumption that the quantities social scientists want to measure, such as attitudes, abilities, price levels, and mobility, can best be represented as unknowns in a statistical model. This method includes both theoretical and practical problems. On the theoretical side, one examines the formulation and testing of an appropriate model and then employs the standard methods of estimation and prediction. On the practical side, one explores the difficulties of implementation deriving from various fields of application.
This distinctly statistical approach to social measurement recognizes that in any measuring situation there are two sorts of variables: (1) manifest or indicator variables that one can directly observe, and (2) the latent variables that one cannot observe but wishes to measure. By regarding these all as random variables on common ground, Bartholomew reduces measurement problems to the familiar calculus of probability.
* Argues that social measures should be derived by reference to a statistical (stochastic) model of the process being studied
* By analyzing a variety of models, Bartholomew finds the common cords that bind them together in a single whole
* Distinctive in its steady attention to the statistical aspects of social measurement and focus
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Problems and Strategy
Validity and Reliability
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analysis approach approximation arises arithmetic mean average Bartholomew basket binary Bradley-Terry model Chapter 9 coefficient common conditional consider correlation defined depend Divisia index eigenvalue elements equal estimate example exponential family expressed factor follows frequencies give given hazard function income independent index numbers indicators inequality interval items and individuals jc's judged latent variable length of service level of measurement logit model lognormal Lorenz curve Markov maximum-likelihood mean measure of mobility measuring instrument method mobility table normal observed obtained parameters particular population positive possible posterior practice price level price relatives prior distribution probability problem propensity to leave quantities question random variable ranking Rasch model reliability response patterns result sample scale value score SLF2 social welfare social welfare function standard sufficiency principle sufficient statistic Suppose survivor function tion variance vector wastage weight zero