The Theory and Practice of Surveying: Designed for the Use of Surveyors and Engineers Generally. But Especially for the Use of Students in Engineering

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J. Wiley & sons, 1900 - Surveying - 838 pages
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Contents

Other Variations of the Declination
29
PAGE
30
34 The Use of the Compass
34
To set off the Declination
36
To establish a Line of a Given Bearing
37
40 The Prismatic Compass described
38
45 The Burt Solar Compass
39
Adjustment of the Bubbles
41
Adjustment of the Declination Vernier
42
Adjustment of the Vernier on the Latitude Arc
43
51 Conditions requiring its Use ft 52 To find the Declination of the Sun
44
To correct the Declination for Refraction
45
Solar Attachments
52
5659 Practical Problems 53
53
60 Their Universal Use in Surveying and Astronomical Work
55
The Accurate Measurement of small Vertical Angles
58
General Considerations
59
The Level described 60
63
Lateral Adjustment of Bubble
67
The Wye Adjustment
68
69a The Architects Compass Level 690
70
The Levellingrod
70
The Use of the Level
71
72 Differential Levelling defined
72
Length of Sights
73
Benchmarks
75
The Record
76
77 Profile Levelling defined
77
The Record
78
79 The Work described 8i The Hand Level 80 Lockes Hand Level
81
8185 Practical Problems
83
the transit 86 The Engineers Transit described b3 87 The Adjustments slated
86
Adjustment of Line of Collimation
87
Adjustment of the Telescope Bubble
89
94 Eccentricity of Centres and Verniers
90
Inclination of Vertical Axis gi 96 Inclination of Horizontal Axis
92
Error in Collimation Adjustment
93
To measure a Vertical Angle
94
To run out a Straight Line
95
Traversing
97
102 Various Forms described
99
Adjustments of the Saegmuller Attachment
102
104 The Gradienter described
104
Exercises with the Transit 106114 Practical Problems 105107
105
115 The Sextant described
108
The Theory of the Sextant
110
The Adjustment of the Index Glass in 118 The Adjustment of the Horizon Glass in 119 The Adjustment of the Telescope to the Plane of the Sextant
111
The Use of the Sextant
112
Woods Double Sextant
113
122a The Crosssection Polar Protractor
114
CHAPTER V
116
Adjustment of the Plate Bubbles
119
General Description of its Use
120
Location by Resection
122
Resection on Three Known Points
125
132135 Practical Problems
126
The Aneroid described
127
Derivation and use of Barometric Formulae
128
Use of the Aneroid
135
139 The Pedometer described
137
The Length of Mens Steps
138
140 Description and Use
139
141 Description and Use
141
142 Description and Use
142
143 Description
143
Theory of the Polar Planimeter
144
To find the Length of Arm to use
150
The Suspended Planimeter
152
Theory of the Rolling Planimeter
154
To Test the Accuracy of a Planimeter
157
The Use of the Planimeter
158
Accuracy of Planimeter Measurements
160
152 Description and Theory
161
Various Styles of Pantographs
165
Various Styles described
166
155 Description and Use
169
Various Kinds described I6q 156a The Pocket Slide Rule
171
BOOK II
172
Land Surveying defined
173
Significance and Authority of Monuments
174
Lost Monuments
175
162 The Extent of the System
176
The Reference Lines
177
The Division into Townships
178
The Convergence of the Meridians
179
Corner Monuments
181
The Subdivision of Sections
183
The Running of Parallels
185
170 The Area defined
187
171 By the Use of the Chain alone
188
By the Use of the Compass or Transit and Chain
189
The Field Notes
190
A Simple Determination of the Wireinterval 245a
201
The Prevention of Systematic Errors of Stadia Measurements 245c
202
Method of Computation stated 193
217
Exampls in Land Surveying
234
Adaptation of Formulae to Inclined Sights
246
Description and Use of the Stadia Tables
248
Porros Telescope having the Vertex of the Reading Angle at the Center of the Instrument
249
206 The Transit
251
Setting the Crosswires
252
Graduating the Stadia Rod
253
209 Topography
257
Reduction of the Notes
265
Plotting the Stadia Line
268
Check Readings
269
Plotting the Side Readings
270
Contour Lines
275
The Final Map
278
Topographical Symbols
279
CHAPTER IX
281
The Maps
283
Plotting the Survey
285
Making the Location on the Map
287
Another Method
291
CHAPTER X
293
226 Enumeration of Methods
294
By Two Angles read on Shore
295
By one Range and one Angle
298
Buoys Buoyflags and Rangepoles
299
By one Range and Timeintervals
300
The Lead
301
Sounding Poles 1
303
Lines of Equal Depth
304
Soundings for the Stud of Sandwaves
305
243 Areas of Crosssection
306
243 Benchmarks
307
Waterlevels
308
Riverslope
309
Measuring Mean Velocities of Watercurrents
310
Use of Subsurface Floats
311
Use of Current Meters
316
Rating the Meter
317
Use of Rod Floats
323
Comparison of Methods
324
The Relative Rales of Flow in Different Parts of the Cross section
325
To find the Mean Velocity on the Crosssection
328
Subcurrents
331
The Flow over Weirs
332
Weir Formula and Corrections
335
The Miners Inch
338
Formulae for the Flow of Water in Open ChannelsKutters For mula
339
Cross sections of Least Resistance
344
261 Methods and Objects
345
Collecting the Specimens of Water
347
Siphoning off Filtering and Weighing the Sediment
348
2741 Underground Leveling
389
274c Mapping the Survey
390
274 Problems of Underground Surveying
392
274J Surface Surveys
397
374 Court Maps
398
CHAPTER XII
400
The Transit
401
278 Provision for Growth r
403
Contour Maps
404
Laying out the Ground
405
The Plat to be Geometrically Consistent
407
Surveys for Subdivision
409
The Datumplane
413
Sewer Systems
414
The Contour Map
415
Erroneous Standards
416
True Standards
417
The Use of the Tape
418
Determination of the Normal Tension
420
The Working Tension
424
The Effect of Wind
425
The Effect of Slope
426
Checks
427
300 The Improvement of Streets
428
The Value of an Existing Monument
429
The Significance of Possession
431
Disturbed Corners and Inconsistent Plats
432
Treatment of Surplus and Deficiency
433
The investigation and Interpretation of Deeds
435
30S Preservation of Lines
436
The Want of Agreement between Surveyors
437
CHAPTER XIII
438
Grading over Extended Surfaces
440
Approximate Estimates by Means of Contours
443
The Prismoid
448
Areas of Crosssection
450
The Centre and Side Heights
451
Crosssectioning
452
Threelevel Sections the Upper Surface consisting of two Warped Surfaces
454
Construction of Tables for Prismoidal Computation
456
Threelevel Sections the Surface divided into Four Planes by Diagonals
461
Comparison of Volumes by Diagonals and by Warped Surfaces
463
Preliminary Estimates from the Profiles
465
Borrow pits
468
326 Excavations under Water
469
CHAPTER XIV
472
Triangulation Systems
473
The Baseline and its Connections
475
Tb e Reconnaissance
477
Instrumental Outfit for Reconnaissance
479
The Direction of Invisible Stations
480
Construction of Stations
485
Targets
486
Heliotropes
490
Station Marks
492
338 Methods
495
The Steel Tape
497
Method of Mounting and Stretching the Tape
498
Jaderins Method
501
The Absolute Length of Tape
503
The Coefficient of Expansion
504
The Modulus of Elasticity
505
Temperature Correction
507
Temperature Correction when a Metallic Thermometer is used
508
Correction for Alignment
510
Correction for Sag
513
To reduce a Broken Base to a Straight Line
516
Summary of Corrections
517
To compute any Portion of a Broken Base which cannot be directly measured
520
Accuracy attainable by Steeltape and Metallicwire Measure ments
521
356 The Instruments
525
The Filar Micrometer
528
35S The Programme of Observations
531
The Repeating Method
532
Adjustment of Horizontal Axis 119
533
Atmospheric Conditions
535
Geodetic Night Signals
536
364 Equations of Condition
539
Adjustment of a Triangle
541
366 The Geometrical Conditions
542
The Sideequation Adjustment
545
Rigorous Adjustment for Angle and Sideequations
549
Example of Quadrilateral Adjustment
552
370 Used only in Primary Triangulation
554
372 Conditions
558
The Observation for Latitude
562
First Method
563
Correction for Observations not on the Meridian
564
The Observation for Azimuth
565
Corrections for Observations near Elongation
567
The Target
568
381a Azimuth from Polaris at any Hour
570
382 Fundamental Relations
571
Time
572
Conversion of a Sidereal into a Mean Solar Time Interval and vice versa
575
To change Mean Time into Sidereal Time
576
To change from Sidereal to Mean Time
577
The Observation for Time
578
Selection of Stars with List of Southern TimeStars for each Month
579
Finding the Mean Time by Transit
582
Finding the Altitude
583
Making the Observations
584
Longitude
586
Computing the Geodetic Positions
587
Example of L M Z Computation
591
395 Of Two Kinds
592
Formulae for Reciprocal Observations
593
Formulae for Observations at One Station only
595
Formulae for an Observed Angle of Depression to a Sea Horizon
597
To find the Value of the Coefficient of Refraction
598
401 Precise Levelling Defined 500
599
The Instruments
600
The Instrumental Constants
603
The Daily Adjustments
607
Field Methods
609
Limits of Error
612
Adjustment of Polygonal Systems
613
Determination of the Elevation of Mean Tide
617
CHAPTER XV
618
Trapezoidal Projection
619
The Simple Conic Projection
621
The Polyconic Projection
622
Meridian Distances in Table VIII
625
Summary
626
The Angle of Convergence of Meridians
628
420 MapLettering
629
Topographical Symbols
630
The Judicial Functions of Surveyors
633
APPENDIX
643
APPENDIX C
685
APPENDIX D
691
APPENDIX
702
The Essential Requirements of a Survey and Map and the Owner
724
Michigan Laws for Making Town City and Village Plats
731
Trigonometrical Formula
753
For Converting Metres Feet and Chains
757
Logarithms of Numbers to Four Places
758
IIIa Logarithms of Trigonometrical Functions to Four Places
760
vation
772
Natural Sines and Cosines
780
VIIICoordinates for Poi yconic Projection
801
Values of Coefficient in Kutters Formula S02 X Diameters of Circular Conduits by Kutters Formula
803
Earthwork Tari eVolumes by the Prismoidal Formula
804
Azimuths of Polaris for all Hours
814
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