The Theory of Optics

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Longmans, Green, and Company, 1901 - Light - 546 pages
 

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Contents

Combinations of Systems 2S CHAPTER III
28
PHYSICAL CONDITIONS FOR IMAGE FORMATION
31
r Refraction at a Spherical Surface
32
Reflection at a Spherical Surface
36
Lenses
40
Thin Lenses
42
Experimental Determination of Focal Length
44
Astigmatic Systems
46
Means of Widening the Limits of Image Formation
52
Spherical Aberration
54
ART TAGE 9 The Law of Sines
58
Images of Large Surfaces by Narrow Beams
63
Chromatic Aberration of Dioptric Systems
66
CHAPTER IV
73
Telecentric Systems
75
Field of View
76
The Fundamental Laws of Photometry
77
The Intensity of Radiation and the Intensity of Illumination of Optical Surfaces
84
Subjective Brightness of Optical Images
86
The Brightness of Point Sources
90
The Effect of the Aperture upon the Resolving Power of Optical Instruments
91
CHAPTER V
93
Simple Magnifyingglasses
95
The Microscope
97
The Astronomical Telescope
107
The Opera Glass
109
The Terrestrial Te lescope
112
The Reflecting Telescope
113
PHYSICAL OPTICS Section I
114
Bradleys Method
115
ART FAGB 3 Fizeaus Method
116
FoucauIts Method
118
Dependence of the Velocity of Light upon the Medium and the Color
120
The Velocity of a Group of Waves 121
121
CHAPTER II
124
Fresnels Mirrors
130
Modifications of the Fresnel Mirrors
134
Newtons Rings and the Colors of Thin Plates
136
Achromatic Interference Bands
144
Interference with Large Difference of Path
148
Stationary Waves
154
Photography in Natural Colors
156
CHAPTER III
159
Fresnels Improvement of Huygens Principle
162
The Differential Equation of the Light Disturbance
169
A Mathematical Theorem
172
Two General Equations
174
Rigorous Formulation of Huygens Principle
179
CHAPTER IV
185
Fresnels Diffraction Phenomena
188
Diffraction by a Straight Edge
192
Diffraction through a Narrow Slit
198
Diffraction by a Narrow Screen
201
Rigorous Treatment of Diffraction by a Straight Edge
203
ART PACK 8 Fraunhofcrs Diffraction Phenomena
213
Diffraction through a Rectangular Opening
214
Diffraction through a Rhomboid
217
Diffraction Openings of any Form
219
Babinets Theorem
221
The Diffraction Grating
222
The Concave Grating
225
Focal Properties of a Plane Grating
227
Michelsons Echelon
228
The Resolving Power of a Prism
233
Limit of Resolution of a Telescope
235
The Limit of Resolution of the Human Eye
236
CHAPTER V
242
The Nicol Prism
244
Other Means of Producing Polarized Light
246
Interference of Polarized Light
247
Stationary Waves Produced by Obliquely Incident Polarized Light
251
Position of the Determinative Vector in Crystals
252
Natural and Partially Polarized Light
253
Experimental Investigation of Elliptically Polarized Light
255
Section II
259
Electromagnetic Theory
260
The Definition of the Electric and of the Magnetic Force
262
ART PAOT 4 Definition of the Electric Current in the Electrostatic and the Electromagnetic Systems
263
Definition of the Magnetic Current
265
The Ether
267
Isotropic Dielectrics
268
The Boundary Conditions
271
The Energy of the Electromagnetic Field
272
Penetration of the Light into the Second Medium in the Case of Total Reflection
299
Application of Total Reflection to the Determination of Index of Refraction
301
The Intensity of Light in Newtons Rings
302
Nonhomogeneous Media Curved Rays
306
CHAPTER III
308
CHAPTER VII
310
Lightvectors and Lightrays
311
Fresnels Law for the Velocity of Light
314
The Directions of the Vibrations
316
The Normal Surface
317
Geometrical Construction of the Wave Surface and of the Direc
320
ART PAC 7 Uniaxial Crystals
323
Determination of the Direction of the Ray from the Direction of the Wave Normal
324
The Ray Surface
326
Conical Refraction
331
Passage of Light through Plates and Prisms of Crystal
335
Total Reflection at the Surface of Crystalline Plates
339
Partial Reflection at the Surface of a Crystalline Plate
344
Interference Phenomena in Crystalline Plates in Convergent Polarized Light
349
CHAPTER IV
358
Metallic Reflection
361
The Optical Constants of the Metals
366
Absorbing Crystals
368
Interference Phenomena in Absorbing Biaxial Crystals
374
Interference Phenomena in Absorbing Uniaxial Crystals
380
tion of Vibration 320
381
CHAPTER V
382
Normal Dispersion
388
Anomalous Dispersion
392
Dispersion of the Metals
396
CHAPTER VI
400
Isotropic Media
401
Rotation of the Plane of Polarization
404
Crystals
408
Rotary Dispersion
412
Absorbing Active Substances
415
MAGNETICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES A Hypothesis of Molecular Currents ART PAGE General Considerations
418
Deduction of the Differential Equations
420
The Magnetic Rotation of the Plane of Polarization
426
Dispersion in Magnetic Rotation of the Plane of Polarization
429
Direction of Magnetization Perpendicular to the Ray
433
Deduction of the Differential Equations
435
Rays Parallel to the Direction of Magnetization
437
Dispersion in the Magnetic Rotation of the Plane of Polarization
438
The Impressed Period Close to a Natural Period
440
Rays Perpendicular to the Direction of Magnetization
443
The Impressed Period in the Neighborhood of a Natural Period
444
The Zeeman Effect
446
The Magnetooptical Properties of Iron Nickel and Cobalt
449
The Effects of the Magnetic Field of the Ray of Light
452
CHAPTER VIII
457
The Velocity of Light in Moving Media
465
The Differential Equations and the Boundary Conditions Re ferred to a Moving System of Coordinates which is Fixed with Reference to the Moving ...
467
The Determination of the Direction of the Ray by Huygens Principle
470
The Absolute Time Replaced by a Time which is a Function of the Coordinates
471
The Configuration of the Rays Independent of the Motion
473
The Earth as a Moving System
474
The Aberration of Light
475
Fizeaus Experiment with Polarized Light
477
Michelsons Interference Experiment
478
RADIATION CHAPTER I
483
Intensity of Radiation of a Surface
484
The Mechanical Equivalent of the Unit of Light
485
The Radiation from the Sun
487
The Pressure of Radiation
488
Prevosts Theory of Exchanges
491
CHAPTER II
493
Temperature Radiation and Luminescence
494
The Emissive Power of a Perfect Reflector or of a Perfectly Transparent Body is Zero
495
KirchholTs Law of Emission and Absorption
496
Consequences of Kirchhoffs Law
499
The Dependence of the Intensity of Radiation upon the Index of Refraction of the Surrounding Medium
502
The Sine Law in the Formation of Optical Images of Surface Elements
505
Absolute Temperature
506
Entropy
510
General Equations of Thermodynamics
511
The Dependence of the Total Radiation of a Black upon its Ab solute Temperature
512
The Temperature of the Sun Calculated from its Total Emission
515
The Effect of Change in Temperature upon the Spectrum of a Black Body
516
The Temperature of the Sun Determined from the Distribution of Energy in the Solar Spectrum
523
The Distribution of the Energy in the Spectrum of a Black Body
524
INCANDESCENT VAPORS AND GASES
528
Index
543

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Popular passages

Page 516 - Stefan-Boltzmann law states that the total energy of a black body is proportional to the fourth power of its absolute temperature.
Page 366 - R, of a plane surface of a substance is defined as the ratio of the intensity of the reflected light to that of the incident light for normal incidence.
Page xi - My purpose is attained if these pages strengthen the reader in the view that optics is not an old and worn.out branch of physics, but that in it also there pulses a new life whose further nourishing must be inviting to everyone.
Page iii - THE THEORY OF OPTICS. By PAUL DRUDE, Professor of Physics at the University of Giessen. Translated from the German by C. RIBORG MANN and ROBERT A. MILLIKAN, Assistant Professors of Physics at the University of Chicago. With no Diagrams.
Page 527 - According to the kinetic theory of gases, the absolute temperature is proportional to the mean kinetic energy of the molecules.
Page 81 - If the force in the electric field is parallel to the axis of x Thus when the electric field is parallel to 'one of the axes of the ellipsoid, the density of the electrification is, as in the case of a sphere, proportional to the cosine of the angle which the normal to the surface makes with the direction of the electric intensity in the undisturbed field. By Coulomb's law the normal electric intensity at the surface of the ellipsoid is equal to...
Page 164 - Presnel's laws of vitreous reflection requires, as has be seen, the determination of but one constant, the index of refraction, or the ratio of the velocities of propagation of light in the two media. Cauchy extended these laws so as to cover the case of metallic reflection by introducing another constant which he calls the co-efficient of extinction. The constant corresponding to the index of refraction is, as in the case of transparent bodies, the tangent of the angle of maximum polarization.
Page 409 - ... but not quite perpendicular to its principal plane. The parts into which the prism is thus divided are joined in reversed positions and a diaphragm with a circular opening is placed at each end. The light which passes through both diaphragms produces a circular field, divided by a diametrical slit into two parts, in which the planes of polarization are slightly inclined to each other. If then light, which has been previously polarized, be transmitted, it will be extinguished in the two parts...
Page 5 - ... depend directly upon the direction of the vibrations. The vibrations cannot undergo any change of direction on one side rather than on the other by incidence on a surface to which they are parallel, and will consequently remain parallel to themselves even when the incidence has taken place. And since the reflected and refracted rays both lie in the plane of incidence, the vibrations (which are perpendicular to that plane, and consequently to every line in it) will fulfil the optical condition...

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