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academic performance activities administered alter behavior Applied Behavior Analysis attention Ayllon Azrin back-up events back-up reinforcers Baer baseline behavior change behavior modification behaviors e.g. classroom clients clinical conditioned reinforcers decreased delivered delivery developed disruptive behavior diverse environment evaluated example exchanged experimental extrinsic consequences feedback focused goals group contingency hospital implemented increased individuals instructions intervention investigations involuntarily confined Journal of Applied Kazdin large number maintained Meichenbaum ment mentally retarded natural environment noncontingently number of tokens O'Leary peers phase Phillips praise primary reinforcers prison privileges problems procedures psychiatric hospital psychiatric patients received tokens reinforcement contingencies reinforcement programs reinforcement techniques reinforcing events relatively response cost retarded schedule self-care sessions settings situations Skinner social reinforcement specific stimulus studies target behaviors teacher tions token earnings token economy token program token reinforcement token system treatment variables verbal verbal behavior vicarious reinforcement ward withdrawn