The Treatment of Steel: A Compilation from Publications of the Crescent Steel Company, on Heating, Annealing, Forging, Hardening and Tempering and on the Use of Furnaces

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Crucible steel Company of America, 1881 - Steel - 156 pages
 

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Page 23 - ... and complicated cutters of any shape, as it will harden the teeth sufficiently without risk of cracking, and will leave the mass of the tool soft and tough, so that it can yield a little to pressure, and thus prevent the teeth tearing out.
Page 63 - The information here afforded, coupled with the workman's own experience and ingenuity, will, doubtless, be sufficient to prevent his finding difficulty in forming for himself any particular idea upon the subject he may want ; consequently I will now pass on to the process of hardening and tempering. In the process of hardening steel, water is by no means essential, as the sole object is to extract its heat rapidly ; and the more sudden the heat is extracted, the harder the steel will be ; consequently,...
Page 49 - ... more parts of the same piece are subjected to different temperatures. 4- It follows, that when steel has been subjected to heat not Absolutely uniform over the whole mass, careful annealing should be resorted to. 5. As the change of volume due to a degree of heat increases directly and rapidly with the quantity of carbon present, therefore high steel is more liable to dangerous internal strains than low steel, and great care should be exercised in the use of high steel. 6. Hot steel should always...
Page 64 - When soft steel is heated to any one of these, and then plunged into water, it does not acquire so great a degree of hardness as if previously made quite hard. The degree of heat required to harden steel, is different in the different kinds. The best kinds require only a low red heat; the harder the steel, the more coarse and granulated its fracture will be. Steel, when hardened, has less specific gravity than when soft; the texture of steel is rendered more uniform by fusing it before it is made...
Page 21 - No. 6 will be much finer than No. 8, will have no fiery lustre, will be hard through and very strong. This is what is called refined by hardening. No. 7 will be refined and hard on the corners and edges, and rather coarser and not quite so hard in the middle. This is about the right heat for hardening taps, milling tools, &c., the teeth of which will be amply hard while there will be no danger of cracking the tool.
Page 66 - ... pan. When the articles arrive at the proper heat they may be immersed in water or oil, or water with a film of oil upon the surface, according to the degree of hardness required in them. A rod of good steel in its hardest state is broken almost as easily as a rod of glass of the same dimensions, and this brittleness can only be diminished by diminishing its hardness; and in this management consists the art of tempering. The surface of the hardened steel is brightened, and it is exposed to heat....
Page 23 - A temperature high enough to cause a piece to harden through, but not high enough to open the grain, will cause the piece to REFINE, to be stronger than the untempered bar, and to carry a tough, keen, cutting edge.
Page 21 - No. I will be coarse with a yellowish cast, and very lustrous. "No. 2 will be coarse and not quite so yellow as No. I. "No. 3 will be finer than Nos. I or 2, and coarser than No. 8, and will have a fiery lustre.
Page 138 - ... hollow jaw, the tongs will then grip them all ; any quantity may be hardened as expeditiously as a single article, if there be sufficient lead. Another thing to be observed is, that the surface of melted lead becomes quickly covered with a skin, which is the effect of the air on the surface, and it wastes the lead so fast that it becomes an object of importance to those who use much lead to check its formation, or to convert it when formed into the metallic state again. Charcoal converts the...
Page 122 - ... expeditious to place it upon a piece of cold sheet-iron, and then to heat the iron and the saw in the midst of the ignited fuel of a hollow fire ; and when it arrives at the proper temperature, it must be taken off the plate and immersed in the hardening fluid. By placing the saw upon a piece of cold sheet-iron, it causes the heat to be very slowly applied, and it has a tendency to prevent the saw buckling in heating. Oil alone, or oil in which tallow has been dissolved, is sufficient to give...

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