The useful metals and their alloys: including mining ventilation, mining jurisprudence, and metallurgic chemistry employed in the conversion of iron, copper, tin, zinc, antimony, and lead ores; with their applications to the industrial arts

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Houlston and Wright, 1857 - Technology & Engineering - 654 pages
 

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Page 256 - ... lastly, that the temperature which the metal would acquire would be also dependent on the rapidity with which the oxygen and carbon were made to combine, and consequently that it was only necessary to bring the oxygen and carbon together in such a manner that a vast surface should be exposed to their mutual action, in order to produce a temperature hitherto unattainable in our largest furnaces.
Page 268 - ... times its original length. One of the most important facts connected with the new system of manufacturing malleable iron is that all the iron so produced will be of that quality known as charcoal iron; not that any charcoal is used in its manufacture, but because the whole of the processes following the smelting of it are conducted entirely without contact with, or the use of, any mineral fuel; the iron resulting therefrom will in consequence be perfectly...
Page 256 - On this new field of inquiry, he set out with the assumption that crude iron contains about 5 per cent. of carbon ; that carbon cannot exist at a white heat in the presence of oxygen without uniting therewith, and producing combustion ; that such combustion would proceed with a rapidity dependent on the amount of surface of carbon exposed ; and lastly, that the temperature which the metal would acquire would be also dependent on the rapidity with which the oxygen and carbon were made to combine...
Page 497 - ... and the rest of the space at the back filled with plaster as usual. In practice it is more convenient generally to reverse the mode of running this metal for the face of the mould, by first ramming the box, when prepared for the plaster, full of sand, then lifting it off, and paring...
Page 472 - On comparing the strength of plates with their riveted joints, it will be necessary to examine the sectional areas taken in a line through the rivetholes with the section of the plates themselves. It is perfectly obvious that in perforating a line of holes along the edge of a plate, we must reduce its strength...
Page 497 - ... it. In this plan the mould for the face of every casting is formed from the original metal pattern, and the pattern itself is firmly and permanently secured in the plaster bed, so that however thin and delicate it may be, there is no risk of injury to the pattern in moulding any number of castings : as many as 3000 have been cast without injury from a slender ornamental pattern. In forming the...
Page 476 - Greenock at high water, when loaded with about 150 tons of dead weight besides her engines and coals, and was left there high and dry during a whole tide without sustaining any injury. She rested nearly on her centre ; and all who saw her were of opinion that no timber vessel could have remained in that position without breaking her back.
Page 268 - ... tons of fluid metal at a single run. The manufacturer has thus gone on increasing the size of his smelting furnaces, and adapting to their use the blast apparatus of the requisite proportions, and has, by this means, lessened the cost of production in every way ; his large furnaces require a great deal less labor to produce a given weight of iron, than would have been required to produce it with a dozen furnaces ; and in like manner he diminishes...
Page 263 - ... the metal, while the diminished quantity of carbon present allows a part of the oxygen to combine with the iron, which undergoes combustion, and is converted into an oxide. At the excessive temperature that the metal has now acquired, the oxide, as soon as formed, undergoes fusion, and forms a powerful solvent of those earthy bases that are associated with the iron ; the violent ebullition which is going on mixes most intimately...
Page 472 - It may be said that the pressure or adhesion of the two surfaces of the plates would add to the strength : but this is not found to be the case, to any great extent, as in almost every instance the experiments indicate the resistance to be in the ratio of their sectional area, or nearly so.

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