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Second Law of Thermodynamics
Further Concepts of Thermodynamics
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absolute zero adiabatic walls atoms black-body radiation Boltzmann bosons calculation canonical ensemble chapter collisions considered constant volume container critical point cycle decrease defined density discussed in section distribution function electrons energy levels engine entropy change equal equipartition theorem example exercise experimental Fermi fermions fluctuations frequency function of temperature gases given by equation heat capacity helium Helmholtz free energy high temperature importance increase independent integral interaction internal energy isothermal kinetic theory law of thermodynamics liquid low temperature macroscopic magnetic field mass Maxwell mean energy mean free path measured microstates monatomic number of molecules number of particles paramagnet parameters partition function physics pressure properties quantity quantum region result reversible adiabatic second law shown in figure simple harmonic oscillator single-particle solid specific heat spin statistical mechanics system in thermal term thermal equilibrium thermal reservoir total number vapour variables velocity Waals weakly coupled written