## Thermodynamics and Heat Powered Cycles: A Cognitive Engineering ApproachDue to the rapid advances in computer technology, intelligent computer software and multimedia have become essential parts of engineering education. Software integration with various media such as graphics, sound, video and animation is providing efficient tools for teaching and learning. A modern textbook should contain both the basic theory and principles, along with an updated pedagogy. Often traditional engineering thermodynamics courses are devoted only to analysis, with the expectation that students will be introduced later to relevant design considerations and concepts. Cycle analysis is logically and traditionally the focus of applied thermodynamics. Type and quantity are constrained, however, by the computational efforts required. The ability for students to approach realistic complexity is limited. Even analyses based upon grossly simplified cycle models can be computationally taxing, with limited educational benefits. Computerised look-up tables reduce computational labour somewhat, but modelling cycles with many interactive loops can lie well outside the limits of student and faculty time budgets. The need for more design content in thermodynamics books is well documented by industry and educational oversight bodies such as ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology). Today, thermodynamic systems and cycles are fertile ground for engineering design. For example, niches exist for innovative power generation systems due to deregulation, co-generation, unstable fuel costs and concern for global warming. Professor Kenneth Forbus of the computer science and education department at Northwestern University has developed ideal intelligent computer software for thermodynamic students called CyclePad. CyclePad is a cognitive engineering software. It creates a virtual laboratory where students can efficiently learn the concepts of thermodynamics, and allows systems to be analyzed and designed in a simulated, interactive computer aided design environment. The software guides students through a design process and is able to provide explanations for results and to coach students in improving designs. Like a professor or senior engineer, CyclePad knows the laws of thermodynamics and how to apply them. If the user makes an error in design, the program is able to remind the user of essential principles or design steps that may have been overlooked. If more help is needed, the program can provide a documented, case study that recounts how engineers have resolved similar problems in real life situations. CyclePad eliminates the tedium of learning to apply thermodynamics, and relates what the user sees on the computer screen to the design of actual systems. This integrated, engineering textbook is the result of fourteen semesters of CyclePad usage and evaluation of a course designed to exploit the power of the software, and to chart a path that truly integrates the computer with education. The primary aim is to give students a thorough grounding in both the theory and practice of thermodynamics. The coverage is compact without sacrificing necessary theoretical rigor. Emphasis throughout is on the applications of the theory to actual processes and power cycles. This book will help educators in their effort to enhance education through the effective use of intelligent computer software and computer assisted course work. |

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### Contents

BASIC CONCEPTS | 1 |

12 BASIC LAWS | 2 |

13 WHY STUDY THERMODYNAMICS? | 3 |

14 DIMENSIONS AND UNITS | 5 |

15 SYSTEMS | 10 |

16 PROPERTIES OF A SYSTEM | 12 |

17 EQUILIBRIUM STATE | 23 |

18 PROCESSES AND CYCLES | 24 |

814 KALINA CYCLE | 333 |

815 NONAZEOTROPIC MIXTURE RANKINE CYCLE | 334 |

816 SUPERCRITICAL CYCLE | 336 |

817 DESIGN EXAMPLES | 338 |

818 SUMMARY | 353 |

GAS CLOSED SYSTEM CYCLES | 355 |

91 A WANKEL ENGINE | 368 |

92 DIESEL CYCLE | 369 |

19 CYCLEPAD | 26 |

110 SUMMARY | 29 |

PROPERTIES OF THERMODYNAMIC SUBSTANCES | 31 |

23 IDEAL GASES | 54 |

24 REAL GASES | 63 |

25 INCOMPRESSIBLE SUBSTANCES | 65 |

26 SUMMARY | 69 |

FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR CLOSED SYSTEMS | 71 |

33 HEAT | 78 |

34 FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR A CLOSED SYSTEM | 80 |

35 FIRST LAW or THERMODYNAMICS FOR A CLOSED SYSTEM APPLY TO CYCLES | 84 |

36 CLOSED SYSTEM FOR VARIOUS PROCESSES | 86 |

37 MULTIPROCESS | 104 |

38 SUMMARY | 108 |

FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR OPEN SYSTEMS | 109 |

43 FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS | 112 |

44 CYCLEPAD OPEN SYSTEM DEVICES | 115 |

45 OTHER DEVICES UNABLE TOUSE CYCLEPAD | 150 |

46 SYSTEMS CONSISTING OF MORE THAN ONE OPENSYSTEM DEVICE | 152 |

47 SUMMARY | 156 |

SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS | 157 |

53 SECOND LAW STATEMENTS | 167 |

54 REVERSIBLE AND IRREVERSIBLE PROCESSES | 168 |

56 CARNOT COROLLARIES | 176 |

57 THE THERMODYNAMIC TEMPERATURE SCALE | 177 |

ENTROPY | 179 |

62 ENTROPY AND HEAT | 180 |

63 HEAT AND WORK AS AREAS | 183 |

65 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR CLOSED SYSTEMS | 185 |

66 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR OPEN SYSTEMS | 187 |

67 PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS | 188 |

68 ISENTROPIC PROCESSES | 196 |

69 ISENTROPIC EFFICIENCY | 199 |

610 ENTROPY CHANGE OF IRREVERSIBLE PROCESSES | 210 |

611 THE INCREASE OF ENTROPY PRINCIPLE | 213 |

612 SECOND LAW EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF CYCLES | 215 |

613 AVAILABLE AND UNAVAILABLE ENERGY | 225 |

614 SUMMARY | 226 |

EXERGY AND IRREVERSIBILITY | 227 |

73 REVERSIBLE WORK OF A CLOSED SYSTEM | 231 |

74 REVERSIBLE WORK OF AN OPEN SYSTEM | 234 |

75 REVERSIBLE WORK OF AN OPEN SYSTEM IN A STEADYSTATE FLOW PROCESS | 235 |

76 IRREVERSIBILITY or A CLOSED SYSTEM | 238 |

77 IRREVERSIBILITY OF AN OPEN SYSTEM | 240 |

78 EXERGY AVAILABILITY | 244 |

79 EXERGY OF A HEAT RESERVOIR | 245 |

710 EXERGY AND EXERGY CHANGE OF A CLOSED SYSTEM | 248 |

71 1 EXERGY OF A FLOW STREAM AND FLOW EXERGY CHANGE OF AN OPEN SYSTEM | 253 |

712 THE DECREASE OF EXERGY PRINCIPLE | 257 |

713 EXERGY EFFECTIVENESS OF DEVICES | 259 |

714 EXERGY CYCLE EFFICIENCY | 261 |

715 SUMMARY | 266 |

VAPOR CYCLES | 269 |

82 BASIC RANKINE VAPOR CYCLE | 272 |

83 IMPROVEMENTS TO RANKINE CYCLE | 281 |

84 ACTUAL RANKINE CYCLE | 282 |

85 REHEAT RANKINE CYCLE | 289 |

86 REGENERATIVE RANKINE CYCLE | 295 |

87 LOWTEMPERATURE RANKINE CYCLES | 307 |

88 SOLAR HEAT ENGINES | 308 |

89 GEOTHERMAL HEAT ENGINES | 312 |

810 OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION | 323 |

811 SOLAR POND HEAT ENGINES | 328 |

812 WASTE HEAT ENGINES | 330 |

813 VAPOR CYCLE WORKING FLUIDS | 332 |

93 ATKINSON CYCLE | 381 |

94 DUAL CYCLE | 383 |

95 LENOIR CYCLE | 388 |

96 STIRLING CYCLE | 391 |

97 MILLER CYCLE | 396 |

98 WICKS CYCLE | 401 |

99 RALLIS CYCLE | 403 |

910 DESIGN EXAMPLES | 409 |

911 SUMMARY | 423 |

GAS OPEN SYSTEM CYCLES | 425 |

102 SPLITSHAFT GAS TURBINE CYCLE | 435 |

103 IMPROVEMENTS TO BRAYTON CYCLE | 438 |

104 REHEAT AND INTERCOOL BRAYTON CYCLE | 439 |

105 REGENERATIVE BRAYTON CYCLE | 444 |

106 BLEED AIR BRAYTON CYCLE | 448 |

107 FEHER CYCLE | 454 |

108 ERICSSON CYCLE | 458 |

109 BRAYSSON CYCLE | 462 |

1010 STEAM INJECTION GAS TURBINE CYCLE | 466 |

1011 FIELD CYCLE | 467 |

1012 WICKS CYCLE | 470 |

1013 ICE CYCLE | 472 |

1014 DESIGN EXAMPLES | 474 |

1015 SUMMARY | 478 |

COMBINED CYCLE AND COGENERATION | 480 |

112 TRIPLE CYCLE IN SERIES | 488 |

113 TRIPLE CYCLE IN PARALLEL | 493 |

114 CASCADED CYCLE | 496 |

115 BRAYTONRANKINE COMBINED CYCLE | 498 |

116 BRAYTONBRAYTON COMBINED CYCLE | 502 |

117 RANKINERANKINE COMBINED CYCLE | 507 |

118 FIELD CYCLE | 510 |

119 COGENERATION | 513 |

1110 DESIGN EXAMPLES | 522 |

1111 SUMMARY | 527 |

REFRIGERATION AND HEAT PUMP CYCLES | 528 |

122 BASIC VAPOR REFRIGERATION CYCLE | 531 |

123 ACTUAL VAPOR REFRIGERATION CYCLE | 536 |

124 BASIC VAPOR HEAT PUMP CYCLE | 539 |

125 ACTUAL VAPOR HEAT PUMP CYCLE | 543 |

126 WORKING FLUIDS FOR VAPOR REFRIGERATION AND HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS | 545 |

127 CASCADE AND MULTISTAGED VAPOR REFRIGERATORS | 546 |

128 DOMESTIC REFRIGERATORFREEZER SYSTEM AND AIR CONDITIONINGHEAT PUMP SYSTEM | 554 |

129 ABSORPTION AIRCONDITIONING | 559 |

1210 BRAYTON GAS REFRIGERATION CYCLE | 560 |

1211 STIRLING REFRIGERATION CYCLE | 566 |

1212 ERICSSON CYCLE | 569 |

1213 LIQUEFACTION OF GASES | 571 |

1214 NONAZEOTROPIC MIXTURE REFRIGERATION CYCLE | 572 |

1215 DESIGN EXAMPLES | 575 |

1216 SUMMARY | 583 |

132 RATE OF HEAT TRANSFER | 587 |

133 HEAT EXCHANGER | 589 |

134 CURZON AND AHLBORN ENDOREVERSIBLE CARNOT CYCLE | 595 |

135 CURZON AND AHLBORN CYCLE WITH FINITE HEAT CAPACITY HEAT SOURCE AND SINK | 604 |

136 FINITE TIME RANKINE CYCLE WITH INFINITELY LARGE HEAT RESERVOIRS | 608 |

137 ACTUAL RANKINE CYCLE WITH INFINITELY LARGE HEAT RESERVOIRS | 612 |

138 IDEAL RANKINE CYCLE WITH FINITE CAPACITY HEAT RESERVOIRS | 615 |

139 ACTUAL RANKINE CYCLE WITH FINITE CAPACITY HEAT RESERVOIRS | 625 |

1310 FINITE TIME BRAYTON CYCLE | 632 |

1311 ACTUAL BRAYTON FINITE TIME CYCLE | 639 |

1312 OTHER FINITE TIME CYCLES | 642 |

648 | |

### Other editions - View all

Intelligent Computer Based Engineering Thermodynamics and Cycle Analysis Chih Wu Limited preview - 2002 |

### Common terms and phrases

5uhatance adiabatic analysis mode Brayton cycle Btu/lbm Btu/s Carnot cycle Carnot heat engine closed system combined cycle combustion chamber compression process compression ratio compressor cycle efficiency Determine device Diesel cycle Display results entropy entropy change exergy exit fluid following steps given information heat added heat addition heat engine heat exchanger heat pump heat removed heat sink heat source heat transfer heater Homework Ibm/s ideal Input the given irreversible isothermal kJ/kg Kode1ed aa Kodeled law of thermodynamics mass flow rate maximum net power minimum temperature open system Otto cycle Phaae power output power produced power required pressure and temperature problem by CyclePad process 1-2 psia Q-dot Rankine cycle rate of heat refrigeration cycle reheat results The answers saturated liquid second law sensitivity diagram shown in Figure solve this problem steam Switch to analysis T-s diagram take the following thermal efficiency turbine efficiency