Thermodynamics and Heat Powered Cycles: A Cognitive Engineering Approach

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Nova Publishers, 2007 - Science - 659 pages
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An engineering textbook that is the result of fourteen semesters of CyclePad usage and evaluation of a course designed to exploit the power of the software, and to chart a path that integrates the computer with education. It aims to give students a thorough grounding in both the theory and practice of thermodynamics.
 

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Contents

BASIC CONCEPTS
1
12 BASIC LAWS
2
13 WHY STUDY THERMODYNAMICS?
3
14 DIMENSIONS AND UNITS
5
15 SYSTEMS
10
16 PROPERTIES OF A SYSTEM
12
17 EQUILIBRIUM STATE
23
18 PROCESSES AND CYCLES
24
814 KALINA CYCLE
333
815 NONAZEOTROPIC MIXTURE RANKINE CYCLE
334
816 SUPERCRITICAL CYCLE
336
817 DESIGN EXAMPLES
338
818 SUMMARY
353
GAS CLOSED SYSTEM CYCLES
355
91 A WANKEL ENGINE
368
92 DIESEL CYCLE
369

19 CYCLEPAD
26
110 SUMMARY
29
PROPERTIES OF THERMODYNAMIC SUBSTANCES
31
23 IDEAL GASES
54
24 REAL GASES
63
25 INCOMPRESSIBLE SUBSTANCES
65
26 SUMMARY
69
FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR CLOSED SYSTEMS
71
33 HEAT
78
34 FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR A CLOSED SYSTEM
80
35 FIRST LAW or THERMODYNAMICS FOR A CLOSED SYSTEM APPLY TO CYCLES
84
36 CLOSED SYSTEM FOR VARIOUS PROCESSES
86
37 MULTIPROCESS
104
38 SUMMARY
108
FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR OPEN SYSTEMS
109
43 FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
112
44 CYCLEPAD OPEN SYSTEM DEVICES
115
45 OTHER DEVICES UNABLE TOUSE CYCLEPAD
150
46 SYSTEMS CONSISTING OF MORE THAN ONE OPENSYSTEM DEVICE
152
47 SUMMARY
156
SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
157
53 SECOND LAW STATEMENTS
167
54 REVERSIBLE AND IRREVERSIBLE PROCESSES
168
56 CARNOT COROLLARIES
176
57 THE THERMODYNAMIC TEMPERATURE SCALE
177
ENTROPY
179
62 ENTROPY AND HEAT
180
63 HEAT AND WORK AS AREAS
183
65 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR CLOSED SYSTEMS
185
66 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR OPEN SYSTEMS
187
67 PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS
188
68 ISENTROPIC PROCESSES
196
69 ISENTROPIC EFFICIENCY
199
610 ENTROPY CHANGE OF IRREVERSIBLE PROCESSES
210
611 THE INCREASE OF ENTROPY PRINCIPLE
213
612 SECOND LAW EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF CYCLES
215
613 AVAILABLE AND UNAVAILABLE ENERGY
225
614 SUMMARY
226
EXERGY AND IRREVERSIBILITY
227
73 REVERSIBLE WORK OF A CLOSED SYSTEM
231
74 REVERSIBLE WORK OF AN OPEN SYSTEM
234
75 REVERSIBLE WORK OF AN OPEN SYSTEM IN A STEADYSTATE FLOW PROCESS
235
76 IRREVERSIBILITY or A CLOSED SYSTEM
238
77 IRREVERSIBILITY OF AN OPEN SYSTEM
240
78 EXERGY AVAILABILITY
244
79 EXERGY OF A HEAT RESERVOIR
245
710 EXERGY AND EXERGY CHANGE OF A CLOSED SYSTEM
248
71 1 EXERGY OF A FLOW STREAM AND FLOW EXERGY CHANGE OF AN OPEN SYSTEM
253
712 THE DECREASE OF EXERGY PRINCIPLE
257
713 EXERGY EFFECTIVENESS OF DEVICES
259
714 EXERGY CYCLE EFFICIENCY
261
715 SUMMARY
266
VAPOR CYCLES
269
82 BASIC RANKINE VAPOR CYCLE
272
83 IMPROVEMENTS TO RANKINE CYCLE
281
84 ACTUAL RANKINE CYCLE
282
85 REHEAT RANKINE CYCLE
289
86 REGENERATIVE RANKINE CYCLE
295
87 LOWTEMPERATURE RANKINE CYCLES
307
88 SOLAR HEAT ENGINES
308
89 GEOTHERMAL HEAT ENGINES
312
810 OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION
323
811 SOLAR POND HEAT ENGINES
328
812 WASTE HEAT ENGINES
330
813 VAPOR CYCLE WORKING FLUIDS
332
93 ATKINSON CYCLE
381
94 DUAL CYCLE
383
95 LENOIR CYCLE
388
96 STIRLING CYCLE
391
97 MILLER CYCLE
396
98 WICKS CYCLE
401
99 RALLIS CYCLE
403
910 DESIGN EXAMPLES
409
911 SUMMARY
423
GAS OPEN SYSTEM CYCLES
425
102 SPLITSHAFT GAS TURBINE CYCLE
435
103 IMPROVEMENTS TO BRAYTON CYCLE
438
104 REHEAT AND INTERCOOL BRAYTON CYCLE
439
105 REGENERATIVE BRAYTON CYCLE
444
106 BLEED AIR BRAYTON CYCLE
448
107 FEHER CYCLE
454
108 ERICSSON CYCLE
458
109 BRAYSSON CYCLE
462
1010 STEAM INJECTION GAS TURBINE CYCLE
466
1011 FIELD CYCLE
467
1012 WICKS CYCLE
470
1013 ICE CYCLE
472
1014 DESIGN EXAMPLES
474
1015 SUMMARY
478
COMBINED CYCLE AND COGENERATION
480
112 TRIPLE CYCLE IN SERIES
488
113 TRIPLE CYCLE IN PARALLEL
493
114 CASCADED CYCLE
496
115 BRAYTONRANKINE COMBINED CYCLE
498
116 BRAYTONBRAYTON COMBINED CYCLE
502
117 RANKINERANKINE COMBINED CYCLE
507
118 FIELD CYCLE
510
119 COGENERATION
513
1110 DESIGN EXAMPLES
522
1111 SUMMARY
527
REFRIGERATION AND HEAT PUMP CYCLES
528
122 BASIC VAPOR REFRIGERATION CYCLE
531
123 ACTUAL VAPOR REFRIGERATION CYCLE
536
124 BASIC VAPOR HEAT PUMP CYCLE
539
125 ACTUAL VAPOR HEAT PUMP CYCLE
543
126 WORKING FLUIDS FOR VAPOR REFRIGERATION AND HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS
545
127 CASCADE AND MULTISTAGED VAPOR REFRIGERATORS
546
128 DOMESTIC REFRIGERATORFREEZER SYSTEM AND AIR CONDITIONINGHEAT PUMP SYSTEM
554
129 ABSORPTION AIRCONDITIONING
559
1210 BRAYTON GAS REFRIGERATION CYCLE
560
1211 STIRLING REFRIGERATION CYCLE
566
1212 ERICSSON CYCLE
569
1213 LIQUEFACTION OF GASES
571
1214 NONAZEOTROPIC MIXTURE REFRIGERATION CYCLE
572
1215 DESIGN EXAMPLES
575
1216 SUMMARY
583
132 RATE OF HEAT TRANSFER
587
133 HEAT EXCHANGER
589
134 CURZON AND AHLBORN ENDOREVERSIBLE CARNOT CYCLE
595
135 CURZON AND AHLBORN CYCLE WITH FINITE HEAT CAPACITY HEAT SOURCE AND SINK
604
136 FINITE TIME RANKINE CYCLE WITH INFINITELY LARGE HEAT RESERVOIRS
608
137 ACTUAL RANKINE CYCLE WITH INFINITELY LARGE HEAT RESERVOIRS
612
138 IDEAL RANKINE CYCLE WITH FINITE CAPACITY HEAT RESERVOIRS
615
139 ACTUAL RANKINE CYCLE WITH FINITE CAPACITY HEAT RESERVOIRS
625
1310 FINITE TIME BRAYTON CYCLE
632
1311 ACTUAL BRAYTON FINITE TIME CYCLE
639
1312 OTHER FINITE TIME CYCLES
642
1313 SUMMARY
648
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