Thermodynamics of Fluids Under Flow

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Springer Science & Business Media, 2001 - Science - 231 pages
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The book analyzes the thermodynamic aspects of several phenomena induced by flow in fluid systems. It begins with a macroscopic formulation of the thermodynamic theory, within the framework of extended irreversible thermodynamics, and compares it with other non-equilibrium approaches. These macroscopic results are examined from a microscopic point of view for different systems, namely, ideal gases, non-ideal gases and dilute polymer solutions. The thermodynamic approach is applied to the analysis of shear-induced changes in the phase diagram of polymer solutions, to shear-induced diffusion and to chemical reactions under flow. It is also compared with the dynamical approach based on the detailed evolution equations. The book may be especially useful for researchers in non-equilibrium thermodynamics or non-equilibrium statistical mechanics and in polymer physics or materials sciences.
 

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Contents

Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics and Rheology
1
11 A Short Review of Rheological Concepts
2
12 Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics
10
13 Rational Extended Thermodynamics
17
14 Theories with Internal Variables
23
15 Hamiltonian Formulations
27
References
32
Ideal Gases
35
Comparison of Thermodynamical and Dynamical Approaches
133
61 Dynamical Derivation of Thermodynamical Stability Criteria
134
62 Structure Factor
139
63 Derivation of the Structure Factor
143
References
150
Thermodynamic Couplings Between Flow and Diffusion
151
Purely Dynamical Couplings
152
72 ShearInduced Migration of Polymers
154

21 Review of Some Basic Concepts
36
22 Information Theory
37
23 Identification of the Lagrange Multipliers
46
24 Kinetic Theory
49
25 Grads Solution
52
26 Comparison with Exact Results
55
27 Partition Function for a Nonequilibrium Relativistic Ideal Gas
58
References
59
Nonideal Fluids
61
31 Modified Equations of State and Shift of the Critical Point
62
32 Kinetic Theory of Dilute Nonideal Gases
67
33 Comparison with Computer Simulations
72
34 Nuclear Collisions
77
References
81
Polymeric Solutions
83
41 Kinetic Theory of Dilute Polymeric Solutions
84
42 Derivation of the SteadyState Compliance
95
43 MaximumEntropy Approach
98
44 Reptation Model
99
References
102
Nonequilibrium Chemical Potential and ShearInduced Effects
103
51 Survey of Experimental Results
104
52 Equilibrium Chemical Potential
107
53 Nonequilibrium Chemical Potential
110
54 Phase Diagram Under Nonequilibrium Conditions
114
55 Nonequilibrium Effects in NonNewtonian Fluids
119
56 Other Approaches
128
References
131
73 Thermodynamics of Taylor Dispersion
164
74 Thermodynamics of Anomalous Diffusion
170
References
176
Chemical Reactions and Polymer Degradation Under Flow
177
81 Thermodynamic Formulation
178
Kinetic Analysis
180
Thermodynamic Analysis
184
84 Kinetic Theory of Chemical Reactions
189
85 Recurrence Method for Probability Weight Distribution Under Viscous Pressure
193
References
195
Concluding Remarks and Perspectives
197
92 Perspectives
200
References
202
Survey of Experimental Information
205
A2 Polystyrene Transdecalin PSTD
206
A3 Polystyrene Dissolved in Oligomeric Polystyrene
208
References
209
Liquid Crystals
211
B2 Dynamic Equations in the Presence of a Flow
215
B3 Thermodynamic Formulation
218
B4 MaximumEntropy Approach
219
References
221
Summary of Vector and Tensor Notation
223
Useful Integrals in the Kinetic Theory of Gases
227
Some Physical Constants
228
Subject Index
229
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