## Topics in the General Theory of StructuresThis volume is about "Structure". The search for "structure", always the pursuit of sciences within their specific areas and perspectives, is witnessing these days a dra matic revolution. The coexistence and interaction of so many structures (atoms, hu mans, cosmos and all that there is in between) would be unconceivable according to many experts, if there were not, behind it all, some gen eral organizational principle. s that (at least in some asymptotic way) make possible so many equilibria among species and natural objects, fan tastically tuned to an extremely high degree of precision. The evidence accumulates to an increasingly impressive degree; a concrete example comes from physics, whose constant aim always was and is that of searching for "ultimate laws", out of which everything should follow, from quarks to the cosmos. Our notions and philosophy have un dergone major revolutions, whenever the "unthinkable" has been changed by its wonderful endeavours into "fact". Well, it is just from physics that evidence comes: even if the "ultimate" could be reached, it would not in any way be a terminal point. When "complexity" comes into the game, entirely new notions have to be invented; they all have to do with "structure", though this time in a much wider sense than would have been understood a decade or so ago. |

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### Contents

INTRODUCTION | 1 |

STRUCTURE AND MODULARITY IN SELFORGANIZING COMPLEX SYSTEMS | 15 |

SUBJECT INDEX | 24 |

Copyright | |

8 other sections not shown

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### Common terms and phrases

algorithm analysis application assigned average number binary relations C-calculus C-contraction C-product C-sets Caianiello cell CH-graphs chain choice function coins collective choice Comando complex cycle complex elements complex envelope component of graph connected component contains convergent corresponding defined denoted described distribution domain E.R.Caianiello electors equal equation equilibrium graph example fan graph finite formulae given grammar G graph dynamics graph Py graph trajectory grid hypergraphs initial graph integer integer values introduce L(Gs language least common multiple Let us consider monetary system Municipalities non-empty number of levels number of steps number of vertices obtained oriented graph parameters partition Pattern Recognition periodical solution pixel planar graphs possible problem procedure properties respect satisfies condition sequence sides space specific subordinated subset substitution graph substitution operator substitution rules subsystems theorem transformational grammar transitive relations tree TT(n unary operations variants vertex window