Toward Safer Food: Perspectives on Risk and Priority Setting

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Routledge, Sep 30, 2010 - Law - 336 pages
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In 1998, a National Academy of Sciences panel called for an integrated, risk-based food safety system. This goal is widely embraced, but there has been little advance in thinking about how to integrate knowledge about food safety risks into a system- wide risk analysis framework. Such a framework is the essential scientific basis for better priority setting and resource allocation to improve food safety. Sandra Hoffmann and Michael Taylor bring together leading scientists, risk analysts, and economists, as well as experienced regulators and policy analysts, to better define the priority setting problem and focus on the scientific and intellectual resources available to construct a risk analysis framework for improving food safety. Toward Safer Food provides a common starting point for discussions about how to construct this framework. The book includes a multi-disciplinary introduction to the existing data, research, and methodological and conceptual approaches on which a system-wide risk analysis framework must draw. It also recognizes that efforts to improve food safety will be influenced by the current institutional context, and provides an overview of the ways in which food safety law and administration affect priority setting. Hoffman and Taylor intend their book to be accessible to people from a wide variety of backgrounds. At the same time, they retain the core conceptual sophistication needed to understand the challenges that are inherent in improving food safety. The editors hope that this book will help the U.S. move beyond a call for an integrated, risk-based system toward its actual construction.
 

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Contents

Conclusion
References
PART III
8
New Directions in Chemical Risk Assessment
The Emerging Science of Microbial Risk Assessment
Conclusions
Notes

Only a First Step
Overview of Chapters
Notes
2
Origins of the Federal Food Safety Bureaucracy
A Closer Look at the Contemporary Structure of Food Safety Regulation
Implications for Resource Allocation
Notes
References
PART II
3
Fundamental Considerations
Available Epidemiological Information
Three Illustrative Pathogens
Working toward an Integrated Matrix
Conclusions
4
Focus on Six CategoriesResidue Types
Food and Color Additives
The Current US Regulatory Scheme
Results of Sampling and Analysis
Conclusions
References
5
An Overview of Federal Food Safety Expenditures
Food Safety Inspections Service Expenditures
Food and Drug Administration
National Food Safety Initiatives
Evaluation of Federal Food Safety Expenditures11
The Big Picture
Notes
References
6
CostBenefit Analysis and Approaches to Measuring Social Costs
Choosing Regulatory Approaches that Result in Least Cost Compliance
Costs of Pesticide Regulation
Costs of Regulating Microbial Hazards
Looking at the Entire Food System
Conclusions Regarding Lessons and Future Directions for Research
Notes
References
7
Failure in the Market for Food Safety Obscures Economic Value
Approaches for Valuing the Benefits of Reducing Morbidity and Premature Death
Federal Agencies Use Different Value Estimates
Customizing the Value of Health Risks for Food Safety Policy
Scope and Cost of Nonhealth Foodborne Risks
The Economic Value of Foodborne Risk Is Only One Piece of the Puzzle
9
A SolutionBased Process for Budgetary Priority Setting
Implications for Setting Food Safety Priorities
Acknowledgments
10
Risk Ranking and Public Policy
Overview of the Carnegie Mellon Approach to Risk Ranking
Development of the Centerville Middle School Test Bed
Empirical Studies Using the Centerville Middle School Test Bed
Opportunities in Food Safety
Conclusions
Acknowledgments
11
Methodology for Estimating QALY Gains
Uses of QALYs and DALYs in Health Care
The Institute of Medicine Study of Vaccine Priorities
Challenges in Using QALYs
Theoretical Limitations of QALYs
QALYs versus WTP DALYs and Burden of Illness Studies
Research Needs Toward Using QALYs and CEA in a Food Safety Priority Setting
References
12
Theory of WTP for Food Safety
Methods for Estimating WTP for Food Safety
Conclusions
Notes
PART IV
13
Current Regulatory Approaches to Food Safety
How Do We Improve Risk Reduction?
Conclusion
14
Opportunities in Risk Management and Communication
How Separate Can They Be?
The Boundary Questions
Organization of Federal Food Protection Activities
References
15
An Integrated Systems Model of Foodborne Illness
The Need for New Analytical and Decision Tools
Constructing the Analytical and Decision Tools
Practical Utility of the Models
Acknowledgments
Appendix A
Notes
Index
Copyright

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About the author (2010)

Sandra Hoffman is a fellow at Resources for the Future. Prior to joining RFF, Hoffmann was on faculty at the LaFollotte Institute of Public Policy at the University of Wisconsin. Michael R. Taylor is a senior fellow at Resources for the Future and chairs the steering committee of the Food Safety Research Consortium. He served in government as Administrator of the U.S.D.A. Food Safety and Inspection Service and as Deputy Commissioner for Policy at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

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