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A Demonstration of transfer
A SUMMARY EVALUATION
A Case of Simplification and Internal development
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acquisition African languages Akan Alleyne Atlantic creoles basilectal Bickerton Byrne Caribbean creoles chapter child conception contact language context copula Creole English creole genesis Creole Languages creolists creolization decreolization derived diachronic dialects dissertation documentation dominant language Dutch emerged encoding English-based creoles equative copula equative sentences evidence example expressed fact full language functional Go/come grammar Haitian Haitian Creole hapa haole Hawaii Hawaiian Hawaiian Creole English Keesing Kikongo Kofi Kwa/Nigerian languages spoken lexical items linguistic locative copula marker Melanesian Pidgin English Muysken native languages originators Pacific Pidgin English phonologically Pidgin and Creole pidgin stage plantations plausible Portuguese postposed predicate prepositions reanalysis reflex Relexification result Rickford Russenorsk salience Saramaccan seen similar simplification slaves speakers Sranan strategy structure substrate languages substrate transfer substratist suggests superstrate superstrate language Suriname SVCs syntactic syntax Tok Pisin University usage West African languages Westermann zero-copula