Tracer Studies in Water Treatment Facilities: A Protocol and Case Studies

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American Water Works Association, 1996 - Technology & Engineering - 152 pages
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Contents

Tracer Study Protocol
3
Background
4
Tracer Test Parameters
6
Types of Tests Conducted in Water Treatment Plants
9
Step Input Tests
10
Pulse Input Tests
11
Choice of Basins in Which to Conduct Tests
12
Determining Flow Rates to Be Tested
14
Centennial WTP
79
Problems Encountered
80
Test Results and Data Evaluation
81
Tracer Test Procedures
82
Problems Encountered
87
Test Results and Data Evaluation
88
Summary and Recommendations
91
Acknowledgments
96

Reservoir Levels to Be Tested
15
Choice of Tracer Chemical
16
Fluoride
17
Rhodamine WT
18
Lithium
19
Sodium
20
Chemicals That Change Conductivity
21
Other Tracers
22
Pulse Input Tests
23
Injection Methods and Mixing
24
Preparing for the Test
26
Analysis of Test Results
28
Pulse Input Tests
31
Determining If the Test Is Valid
34
Variables
35
References
36
Case Study Tracer Analysis Through Conventional Treatment Processes for the City of San Diego Calif
39
Flocculation Sedimentation and Filtration
41
Method of Tracer Addition
42
Analysis of Results
43
Conclusions
45
Selection of Tracer Chemical and Method of Addition
46
Flow Rates Evaluated Sampling Procedure and Method of Tracer Analysis
47
Conclusions
49
Case Study Designing and Carrying Out a Tracer Test Program for Three Conventional Treatment Plants
51
Determination of the Types of Tests to Conduct
53
Tracer Feed Method
54
Flow Rates Tested
55
Data Analysis
56
Conclusions
61
References
62
Case Study Tracer Studies in a CountercurrentCocurrent Ozone Contactor
63
Test Results
69
Acknowledgments
74
Case Study Chlorine Contact Basin and Ozone Contactor Tracer Studies for Amherst Mass
75
Tracer Testing Methods
77
Determination of T₁₀
78
Case Study Tracer Analysis of a Final Clarifier and a Chlorine Contact Chamber
97
Method of Chemical Injection
98
Secondary Clarifier
99
Amount of Chemical Used
101
Secondary Clarifier
102
Plant Flow Rates
103
Sample Location
104
Chlorine Contact Chamber
105
Secondary Clarifier
107
Secondary Clarifier
108
Chlorine Contact Chamber
109
Secondary Clarifier
111
Chlorine Contact Chamber
112
Case Study City of Unalaska Alaska Chlorine Contact Reservoir Tracer Test
113
Summary and Purpose
114
System Description
115
Test Procedures and Equipment
116
Specifications
118
Tracer Solution
119
Above Average Flow Rate Test
120
References
122
Case Study Tracer Analysis of a Baffled Storage Tank
123
Tracer Test Procedure
126
Tank Level and Flow
127
Data Collection and Analysis
128
Test Results
131
General Discussion
136
Case Study Comparative Residence Time Distribution Testing for the Hagerstown Md Water Pollution Control Plant Ozone Contact Basin
137
Methods and Materials
140
Postmodification Test
141
Postmodification Test
142
Discussion
143
References
145
SI Equivalent Units
147
List of Abbreviations
151
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