Trade with Japan: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Trade of the Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives, Ninety-sixth Congress, Second Session, August 26, September 18, 1980

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U.S. Government Printing Office, 1980 - Foreign trade regulation - 230 pages
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Page 90 - For this purpose, technical regulations shall not be more trade-restrictive than necessary to fulfil a legitimate objective, taking account of the risks non-fulfilment would create. Such legitimate objectives are, inter alia: national security requirements; the prevention of deceptive practices; protection of human health or safety, animal or plant life or health, or the environment.
Page 1 - Commission conducts investigations to determine whether an article is being imported into the United States in such increased quantities as to be a substantial cause of serious injury, or the threat thereof, to the domestic industry producing an article like or directly competitive with the imported article.
Page 108 - Japan, industries such as steel, oil-refining, petro-chemicals, automobiles, aircraft, industrial machinery of all sorts, and electronics, including electronic computers. From a short-run, static viewpoint, encouragement of such industries would seem to conflict with economic rationalism. But from a long-range viewpoint, these are precisely the industries where income elasticity of demand is high, technological progress is rapid, and labour productivity rises fast.
Page 109 - Key governmental departments, such as the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) and the Ministry of Finance...
Page 108 - The Ministry of International Trade and Industry decided to establish in Japan industries which require intensive employment of capital and technology, industries that in consideration of comparative cost of production should be the most inappropriate for Japan, industries such as steel, oil refining, petro-chemicals, automobiles, aircraft, industrial machinery of all sorts, and later electronics, including electronic computers.
Page 212 - Members are farmer cooperatives and independent shippers which represent over 75 percent of the 10,500 citrus fruit growers in Arizona and California. These growers produce oranges, lemons, grapefruit, tangerines and limes. This fruit is marketed in both fresh and processed forms. The League speaks on behalf of the California-Arizona citrus fruit industry on matters of general concern such as legislative, foreign trade and other similar topics. Representatives of the League have devoted much time...
Page 2 - To amend the Tariff Schedules of the United States with respect to the rate of duty on olives.
Page 108 - Industry proliferate sectoral targets and plans; they confer, they tinker, they exhort. This is the 'economics by admonition...
Page 188 - ... each head up large industrial groups of their own while Fujitsu, Mitsubishi Electric, and Nippon Electric are each a member of a group which includes a major bank, ie Dai Ichi Kangyo Bank, Mitsubishi Bank, and Sumitomo Bank, respectively. To the extent that a keiretsu bank directly or indirectly owns a significant interest in the shares of a borrower, it has a continuing voice in establishing corporate policy and direction. This control, coupled with the assurance of financial assistance or loan...
Page 116 - So it is that the tidier the model of Japan's political economy, the less it conforms to reality. Clearly, all but a relatively few of the day-to-day economic decisions must be made in the private sector — within, to be sure, the bounds set by law and custom, but certainly not accotding to a blueprint made in Tokyo.

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