Transport Policy and the Environment: Six Case Studies
The growing concern about environmental pollution has forced Governments to look for more efficient ways of protecting the environment. Transport and in particular motor vehicles, are a major source of pollution and in the developed world, accounts for 30% of energy consumption. There are a number of countries in which tentative policies dealing with this are emerging.
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Introduction JeanPhilippe Barde and Kenneth Button
The United States Elizabeth Deakin
The Federal Republic of Germany Urich Blum
France Claude Lamure and Emile Quinet
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50 per cent abatement accidents agencies air pollution air-quality annum average billion lira buses catalytic converters caused circular road city centre co-ordination commuting concerning damage dB(A demand diesel engines diesel fuel economic effects emissions reduction environment environmental policy estimated federal freight transport fuel taxes Greece growth Hague HGVs highways impact implementation improve incentives income increase infrastructure kilometres licences limits lira litre lorries maintenance Ministry of Housing Ministry of Transport mobility modal distribution modal split modes motorways Netherlands nitrogen oxide noise levels noise pollution OECD operating overall parking policy particulates passenger cars PERPA petrol private cars problems programmes public transport railway reduce regulation restricted result revenues road network road pricing road traffic road transport SNCF social cost Source subsidies Table taxation taxis TCMs tonnes traffic noise transport policy transport sector Tweede Kamer users vehicles vergaderjaar VROM