Trends in Health Status, Services, and Finance: The transition in Central and Eastern Europe, Volume 1

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Ellen Goldstein
World Bank Publications, Jan 1, 1996 - Health & Fitness - 40 pages
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World Bank Discussion Paper No. 342. Examines South Africa's dominant trading position in the Southern African region and asks whether the country should participate in any of the existing regional trade groups and establish preferential trading arrangements within those various groups. The study concludes that preferential trading arrangements are no substitute for multilateral trade liberalization when the preferences are given to a more dominant economy.

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Page 40 - In contrast to prevalence, incidence quantifies the number of new events or cases of disease that develop in a population of individuals at risk during a specified time interval.
Page 7 - Central and Eastern Europe, and the countries of the former Soviet Union.
Page 10 - The total fertility rate is a synthetic measure of the number of children a woman would have if she passed through her childbearing years at the current age-specific fertility rates.
Page 40 - The number of children a woman would have if she passed through her childbearing years and experienced at the current age-specific fertility rates.
Page 33 - Because the effects of tobacco are so great among males in the former socialist economies, the death rates from non-communicable diseases are higher in that region than in any other. Overall, removal of the effects of tobacco in 1990 from the top two bars in Figure...
Page 24 - However, the share of GDP spent on health tends to be higher in CEE countries than in developing countries at similar income levels.
Page 9 - For example, a new WHO-recommended measure of live births and infant deaths was introduced in Poland in 1994. 1993 data recalculated according to the new concept demonstrated that the former measure of live births excluded about 4-5% of infant deaths (UNICEF, 1995).
Page 3 - In the long run, the transition towards a market economy and adoption of democratic forms of government should ultimately lead to improvements in health status. ... In the short run, however, one could expect that health status would deteriorate...
Page 9 - Average life expectancy at birth for males declined markedly between 1989 and 1993 in Hungary, Bulgaria, Russia and Ukraine, while life expectancy for females stagnated.
Page ix - ... in countries undergoing transition to a market economy in Central and Eastern Europe during the 1990s. It validates and expands on many of the early hypotheses formulated by Alexander S. Preker and Richard GA Feachem in "Health Care...

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