Trends in Health Status, Services, and Finance: The transition in Central and Eastern Europe, Volume 1
World Bank Publications, Jan 1, 1996 - Health & Fitness - 40 pages
World Bank Discussion Paper No. 342. Examines South Africa's dominant trading position in the Southern African region and asks whether the country should participate in any of the existing regional trade groups and establish preferential trading arrangements within those various groups. The study concludes that preferential trading arrangements are no substitute for multilateral trade liberalization when the preferences are given to a more dominant economy.
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000 population Albania Average length Bulgaria capita health spending CEE countries Central and Eastern cost countries of Central Croatia cross-national Czech Republic decline Eastern Europe economic contraction environmental Evolution in Real expectancy at birth expenditures for health Figure fiscal FSEs and EMEs FYR Macedonia GDP deflators GDP per capita GDP ratio health finance health insurance systems health personnel health sector health services health status Health to GDP Hospital beds Hungary Immunization Coverage income levels increased Infant Mortality Rate length of stay Lithuania live births males Maternal Mortality Ratio national health insurance net wages OECD pattern payroll taxation payroll-based pharmaceutical Poland public expenditures public sector health Real health spending Real per capita real public spending Real Spending Reduction in Real revenues Romania Sector Health Expenditures share of GDP Slovakia Slovenia social Soviet Union spending for health stay days Surveillance of Agricultural Turkmenistan Ukraine UNICEF wages World Bank
Page 40 - In contrast to prevalence, incidence quantifies the number of new events or cases of disease that develop in a population of individuals at risk during a specified time interval.
Page 10 - The total fertility rate is a synthetic measure of the number of children a woman would have if she passed through her childbearing years at the current age-specific fertility rates.
Page 40 - The number of children a woman would have if she passed through her childbearing years and experienced at the current age-specific fertility rates.
Page 33 - Because the effects of tobacco are so great among males in the former socialist economies, the death rates from non-communicable diseases are higher in that region than in any other. Overall, removal of the effects of tobacco in 1990 from the top two bars in Figure...
Page 24 - However, the share of GDP spent on health tends to be higher in CEE countries than in developing countries at similar income levels.
Page 9 - For example, a new WHO-recommended measure of live births and infant deaths was introduced in Poland in 1994. 1993 data recalculated according to the new concept demonstrated that the former measure of live births excluded about 4-5% of infant deaths (UNICEF, 1995).
Page 3 - In the long run, the transition towards a market economy and adoption of democratic forms of government should ultimately lead to improvements in health status. ... In the short run, however, one could expect that health status would deteriorate...
Page 9 - Average life expectancy at birth for males declined markedly between 1989 and 1993 in Hungary, Bulgaria, Russia and Ukraine, while life expectancy for females stagnated.