Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures

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Springer Science & Business Media, 1999 - Science - 518 pages
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The field of ultrafast spectroscopy of semiconductors and their nanostruc tures continues to be an active field of research. Exciting new developments have taken place since the first edition of this book was completed in 1995. This revised edition includes a discussion of many of these recent develop ments in the field. This is accomplished by adding a chapter on Recent De velopments at the end of the book. This approach was selected to provide a discussion of results while they are still relatively recent. Results published before the end of May 1998 were considered for inclusion in this book. The objective of this revised edition remains the same as before: to provide a co hesive discussion of the many diverse contributions of ultrafast spectrosco py to the field of semiconductors. Extensive cross-references are made to earlier chapters in order to accomplish this goal. The chapter on Recent Developments begins with a brief discussion of new lasers, new techniques of ultrafast spectroscopy and novel nanostruc tures. This is followed by a section on Coherent Spectroscopy where some of the most interesting recent developments have taken place. These include observation of quantum kinetic effects, effects that require going beyond the mean-field approach of the semiconductor Bloch equations, coherent control of populations and current in semiconductors, exciton-continuum interac tions, and many diverse aspects of coherent spectroscopy including studies of microcavities, Bragg structures, quantum dots and quantum wires.
 

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Contents

1 Introduction
1
Basic Concepts
2
112 Excitons
5
113 Phonons in Semiconductors
6
114 Scattering Processes in Semiconductors
7
Four Regimes
9
116 Carrier Transport
11
12 Ultrafast Lasers
12
524 MonteCarlo Simulation of Phonon Dynamics in GaAs Quantum Wells
214
525 HotPhonon Dynamics in GaAs Quantum Wells
215
526 Determination of Phonon Occupation Number
218
527 Experimental Determination of the HotPhonon Occupation Number and Dynamics
220
53 Conclusions
224
6 Exciton Dynamics
225
611 Exciton States
226
612 ExcitonPolaritons
227

131 PumpProbe Spectroscopy
13
132 FWM Spectroscopy
16
133 Luminescence Spectroscopy
18
134 Interferometric Techniques
20
14 Interpretation of Results
21
143 Raman Spectroscopy
23
145 Calculation of the Dynamics
24
146 Current Trends
26
2 Coherent Spectroscopy of Semiconductors
27
21 Basic Concepts
28
211 An Ensemble of Independent TwoLevel Systems
29
212 Semiconductor Bloch Equations
41
213 Coherence Effects in Other Optical Experiments
47
214 Concluding Remarks
49
222 ExcitonPhonon Interactions
51
223 Localized Excitons
54
23 AC Stark Effect
57
24 Transient Spectral Oscillations
60
25 Exciton Resonance in FWM
61
26 Quantum Beats of Excitons
63
261 Beats from Discrete Excitonic Islands
64
262 HHLH Beats
66
263 Quantum Beats of MagnetoExcitons
69
264 Distinction Between Quantum and Polarization Beats
70
265 Propagation Quantum Beats
74
266 Concluding Remarks
78
271 ExcitonExciton Interaction Effects
79
272 Biexcitonic Effects
89
28 Coherent Oscillations of an Electronic Wavepacket
96
29 Bloch Oscillations in a Semiconductor Superlattice
103
292 TightBinding Picture
104
293 Qualitative QuantumMechanical Picture
105
294 Observation of Bloch Oscillations in Semiconductor Superlattices
106
295 Influence of Excitons
108
296 Concluding Remarks
111
2102 FreeCarrier Dephasing in Bulk GaAs
112
2104 FreeCarrier Dephasing in ModulationDoped Quantum Wells
113
2105 TimeResolved FWM from ModulationDoped Quantum Wells
116
211 Coherent Phonons
117
212 Terahertz Spectroscopy of Semiconductor Nanostructures
120
2122 HHLH Oscillations
124
2123 Bloch Oscillations
126
2124 Coherent Control of Charge Oscillations
128
2125 Summary
131
3 Initial Relaxation of Photoexcited Carriers
133
31 Nonthermal Distributions in GaAs
135
312 Luminescence Spectroscopy
139
32 Intervalley Scattering in GaAs
144
33 Initial Carrier Relaxation in Quantum Wells
148
332 Nonthermal Holes in nModulationDoped Quantum Wells
153
333 Intersubband Scattering in Quantum Wells
155
34 Summary and Conclusions
160
4 Cooling of Hot Carriers
161
41 Simple Model of Carrier EnergyLoss Rates and Cooling Curves
162
Early Measurements and Analysis
166
43 Other Factors Influencing the Cooling Curves
171
432 Hot Phonons
172
433 Screening and ManyBody Aspects
175
44 Further Experimental Investigations of EnergyLoss Rates
183
441 Direct Measurement of the EnergyLoss Rates
184
442 Bulk vs Quasi2D Semiconductors
190
45 Conclusions
192
5 Phonon Dynamics
193
51 Phonon Dynamics in Bulk Semiconductors
194
512 Phonon Detection by Raman Scattering
196
514 Phonon Dynamics in GaAs
198
515 Coherent Generation and Detection of Phonons
202
516 MonteCarlo Simulation of Phonon Dynamics in GaAs
206
52 Phonon Dynamics in Quantum Wells
208
522 Phonon Generation in Quantum Wells
212
523 Phonon Detection by Raman Scattering
213
613 Exciton Fine Structure
229
614 Dynamical Processes of Excitons
231
NonResonant Excitation
236
622 Exciton Relaxation Dynamics in Cu20
241
623 Spin Relaxation Dynamics in GaAs Quantum Wells
243
624 Recombination Dynamics of Thermalized Excitons in GaAs Quantum Wells
244
Resonant Excitation
247
631 PumpandProbe Studies
248
632 Picosecond Luminescence Studies
251
633 Femtosecond Luminescence Studies
257
64 Conclusions
261
7 Carrier Tunneling in Semiconductor Nanostructures
263
Optical Markers
264
DoubleBarrier Structures
266
Asymmetric DoubleQuantumWell Structures
269
731 Optical Markers in aDQWS
270
732 Nonresonant Tunneling
271
733 Resonant Tunneling
272
74 Tunneling in DoubleBarrier Structures
278
743 Summary
280
in Asymmetric DoubleQuantumWell Structures
281
751 Dependence on Barrier Thickness
282
752 Resonant PhononAssisted Tunneling
283
76 Resonant Tunneling in Asymmetric DoubleQuantumWell Structures
286
Initial Studies
288
Further Studies
289
764 Unified Picture of Tunneling and Relaxation
291
765 Summary
293
8 Carrier Transport in Semiconductor Nanostructures
295
811 Some Examples
297
82 Perpendicular Transport in GradedGap Superlattices
299
83 Carrier SweepOut in Multiple Quantum Wells
308
831 Hybrid Technique
309
832 AllOptical Studies of Carrier SweepOut
310
84 Carrier Capture in Quantum Wells
314
842 Experimental Studies
316
843 Implications for Lasers
320
844 Summary
322
85 Conclusions
323
9 Recent Developments
325
912 Ultrafast Lasers
331
92 Coherent Spectroscopy
335
921 Quantum Kinetics in Semiconductors
336
922 Beyond the Semiconductor Bloch Equations
345
923 Coherent Control in Semiconductors
351
924 Phase Sensitive Measurements
361
925 ExcitonContinuum Interaction
365
926 Bloch Oscillations
374
927 Coherent Phonons
376
928 PlasmonPhonon Oscillations
377
929 HHLH Resonance in the Continuum
379
9210 Biexcitons
381
9211 Coherent and Nonlinear Phenomena in Semiconductor Microcavities
383
9212 Coherence in Multiple QuantumWell Structures and BraggAntiBragg Structures
390
9213 Coherent Properties of Quantum Wires and Dots
395
93 Ultrafast Emission Dynamics
398
Investigation by PhaseLocked Pulses
401
Direct Measurement of Amplitude and Phase
407
934 Microcavities
410
Dynamics and HighIntensity Effects
418
941 Carrier Dynamics
419
942 Exciton Dynamics
425
Capture and Relaxation Dynamics
427
HighDensity Effects
432
Relaxation Dynamics
435
946 CarrierTransport Dynamics
443
95 Epilogue
446
References
447
Subject Index
509
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About the author (1999)

Shah is with AT&T Bell Labs, Holmdel, NJ.