Understanding Cultures Through Their Key Words: English, Russian, Polish, German, and Japanese
Oxford University Press, 1997 - 317 páginas
This book develops the dual themes that languages can differ widely in their vocabularies, and are also sensitive indices to the cultures to which they belong. Wierzbicka seeks to demonstrate that every language has "key concepts," expressed in "key words," which reflect the core values of agiven culture. She shows that cultures can be revealingly studied, compared, and explained to outsiders through their key concepts, and that the analytical framework necessary for this purpose is provided by the "natural semantic metalanguage," based on lexical universals, that the author andcolleagues have developed on the basis of wide-ranging cross-linguistic investigations. Appealing to anthropologists, psychologists, and philosophers as well as linguists, this book demonstrates that cultural patterns can be studied in a verifiable, rigorous, and non-speculative way, on the basis ofempirical evidence and in a coherent theoretical framework.
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Cultural elaboration and the lexicon
Culturea perilous idea?
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American appears aspect attitude Australian bad things bastard bugger called changes characteristic clearly close component concept context contrast course culture defined definition described dictionary discussion drug earlier emotional English equality example expected explication expression fact feel freedom frequently friendship German giri glosses hand happen Heimat human idea ideal illustrated implies important individual interesting Japan Japanese kind koledzy language liberty linked live mate mateship meaning nature obligation offered ojczyzna older one's particular person phrase podruga Polish political positive possible proposed question quoted refers reflected relations relationship respect rodina roughly Russian seems seen semantic sense sentences shared shows similar social society someone speak suggests svoboda things tovarišč traditional translated true universal Vaterland want to say whereas word znajomi