Understanding Ideology enables the reader to recognize public expressions of an ideology, thereby avoiding gullibility and the consequences of ignorance. Of Karl Mannheim's classic dual conception of ideology, a Marxist-Freudian orientation is adopted. Supporting this is a critical conception of social alienation with aggressivity, narcissism, and socialization providing the psychological foundation for establishing any ideology. Operative in ideology are the same psychically defensive mechanisms Freud found in wishful dreams, neurotic repression, paranoia and mythology. Various forms of fallacious reasoning and propaganda sustain ideology. Finally dealt with is the possibility of escaping ideology as well as its difference from science.
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Alienating Aspects of Ideology
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abstract aggressivity alienation Althusser authority ﬁgures autonomy behavior capitalist claims class interests common concealed conception of ideology conﬂict Crowell-Collier Publishing Company culture dealienation deﬁned deﬁnition disguise dominant economic ego ideals emotional epistemological epoch existential expressed extemal fact false consciousness falsiﬁed falsify Fascism ﬁnd ﬁrst Freud Freudian terminology frustration function goveming gratiﬁcation guilt Hegelian historical human needs Ibid ideas identiﬁcation ideological beliefs ideological rationalization illusion impulses in-group individual inﬂuence instinctual intemalized interpretation Ira Cohen labor logical Mannheim’s Marx Marx’s Marxist material motives narcissistic Nazism neurosis object one’s out-group perspective phantasy philosophical political praxis production propaganda psyche psychic defense mechanisms psychoanalytic psychodynamics psychological psychosexual development psychosocial conﬂict rationality and freedom reﬂects reﬂexive relativism religion repression response scientiﬁc sexual signiﬁed social authority social class social cohesion social conﬂict social reality society sociological sociology of knowledge structure sublimated successive excerpts superego theory thought truth unconscious utopian venting Weltanschauung