Understanding Mental Retardation

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Cambridge University Press, Aug 29, 1986 - Medical - 292 pages
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Understanding Mental Retardation constitutes a guide to research and theory for specialists and students alike. Throughout, Edward Zigler and Robert M. Hodapp draw on our knowledge of normal development to inform their discussion of various aspects of retardation. Two introductory chapters provide the developmental framework for this discussion. Topics addressed include issues of definition, classification, and prevalence; motivation and personality factors; intervention in the lives of organically and so-called familial retarded persons; the possibility of 'miracle cures'; and the problems of institutionalization and mainstreaming. The authors' clear presentation and judicious evaluation of the available evidence will attract the attention of a wide audience.
 

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Contents

What we do and do not understand about mental retardation
3
What we know about mental retardation
4
Some retardation involves known organicity some does not
8
Motivational and personality factors play an important role in life functioning of retarded people
9
Issues in mental retardation about which experts disagree
10
The role of social systems in determining who is retarded
12
How best to care for retarded people
13
How best to intervene with retarded people
15
Expectancy of success
128
Outerdirectedness
131
Selfconcept
133
Summary
134
Intervention and treatment approaches
137
Principles of early intervention with organically retarded children
139
The developmental approach to early intervention
143
Intervention to enhance sensorimotor cognitive functioning
146

Summary
18
The developmental perspective
19
The nature of human development
20
Piagets cognitivedevelopmental theory
22
Additions to cognitivedevelopmental theory
24
The developmental perspective applied to retarded persons
27
Development in organic and familial retardation
28
General applications of the developmental perspective
29
Practical contributions of the developmental perspective
35
Summary
38
Definition classification etiology and prevalence
41
Definition and classification of mental retardation
43
Elements of a basic classification system
44
Relationships between IQ CA and MA
47
Nonintellectual determinants of behavior
50
Classification by etiology
51
The issue of labeling
54
Labeling by ability
55
The retardation stigma
56
Labeling the unknown
57
The prevalence of mild mental retardation in the United States and Sweden
59
Resolving the definitional problem
63
Social adaptation abandoned as a defining characteristic of mental retardation
65
Conclusion
66
Familial retardation and the naturenurture controversy
68
The polygenic model
70
Genetic contributions
72
Polygenic predictions
73
The environmental bias
78
An example of the environmental bias
80
A genuine coalescence
82
A classification system for mental retardation
86
Service and treatment implications
88
Conclusion
89
How many retarded people are there?
90
The question of IQ consistency
92
Changes in definition or detection?
93
The 3 versus 1 argument
94
Deriving the 1 estimate
95
A compromise estimate
97
Prevalence studies
99
Retardation due to organic versus unknown etiologies
103
IQ differences
104
Conclusion
110
Motivation and personality development of retarded persons
113
The retarded child as a whole person
115
Early research on motivational factors
118
Social deprivation and desire for social reinforcement
121
The positivereaction tendency
122
The negativereaction tendency
125
The reinforcer hierarchy
126
Linguistic and communication skills
148
Functional language training and the problem of generalization
150
Developmental programs
152
The role of motherchild interaction in early intervention work
153
Families of mentally retarded children
157
Intervention with families of retarded children
160
Early intervention programs and their evaluation
162
Major early intervention programs for atrisk children
163
The Milwaukee Project
168
The Perry Preschool Project
170
Summary of findings from these three programs
172
Assessing the effectiveness of early intervention programs
173
The child
174
The family
176
Costbenefit analyses
177
The Yale Project
178
Summary
180
The search for miracle cures
181
The DomanDelacato procedures
182
The neurological theory of patterning
183
Research on the DomanDelacato procedures
185
Possible harmful effects of the patterning treatment
189
Vitamin therapy
191
The concept of genetotrophic disease
192
Replications of the Harrell et al study
193
Other nutritional therapies
194
The case of phenylketonuria
197
Conclusion
199
Caring for retarded people
201
Institutionalization
203
Effects of institutions on retarded residents
210
Deinstitutionalization
214
Conclusion
220
Need for a historical view
222
Mainstreaming
223
The definition and goals of mainstreaming
226
Evaluation of the effects of mainstreaming
229
Social interaction
230
Stigmatization
232
Racial integration
234
Overview and recommendations
235
Conclusion
239
Conclusion
241
Need to go beyond conventional or accepted answers
242
Utility of the developmental perspective
243
Need for a humane outlook
245
References
248
Author index
280
Subject index
287
Copyright

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Popular passages

Page 272 - Fahel, LS The effect of social reinforcement on the performance of institutionalized and noninstitutionalized normal and feebleminded children.
Page 259 - Gruen, G. & Zigler, E. Expectancy of success and the probability learning of middle-class, lower-class, and retarded children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1968,7^, 343-352.
Page 278 - Zigler, E., Hodgden, L. , & Stevenson, H. The effect of support on the performance of normal and feebleminded children.
Page 279 - Zigler, E., & Unell, E. Concept-switching in normal and feebleminded children as a function of reinforcement.

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About the author (1986)

Edward Zigler received his Ph.D. in clinical psychology from the University of Texas at Austin in 1958, and came to Yale in 1959. During his 45 years at Yale, he has served as Director of the Child Development Program, Chairman of the Psychology Department, and a member of the Executive Committee of the Child Study Center at the Yale University School of Medicine. He founded and is Emeritus Director of the Edward Zigler Center for Child Development and Social Policy at Yale (formerly the Yale University Bush Center in Child Development and Social Policy), the first center in the nation to combine training in developmental science and public policy. There are now over 40 centers based on Dr Zigler's model in universities throughout the country. As Professor Emeritus, Dr Zigler remains as active as ever in his scholarly and public education endeavors, continuing to research, write about, and speak on topics related to child development, early childhood education, and social policy. In addition to being one of the founders of the field of applied developmental psychology, Dr Zigler's research on the social and cognitive aspects of early childhood development, child care, and early intervention has helped to promote and shape the field's application of research findings to optimizing the lives of young children and their families. Dr. Zigler has had widespread influence on many national programs and policies. He helped to plan several national projects and policies, including Head Start, Follow Through, the Parent and Child Centers, Early Head Start, the first national Office of Child Care, the national Child Development Associate (CDA) certification program, the Family and Medical Leave Act. He also created the School of the 21st Century, which has been adopted by more than 1,300 schools in 20 states, and cofounded the CoZi model, which is a combination of Dr James P. Comer's School Development Program and Zigler's 21st Century School model. He is an advisor to numerou

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