## Underwater Acoustic Modeling: Principles, techniques and applications, Second EditionUnderwater Acoustic Modeling provides the only comprehensive source on how to translate our physical understanding of sound in the sea into mathematical formulas solvable by computers. |

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### Contents

Introduction | 1 |

Acoustical oceanography | 10 |

Propagation I Observations and physical models | 47 |

Propagation II Mathematical models Part One | 87 |

Propagation II Mathematical models Part Two | 129 |

Noise I Observations and physical models | 171 |

Noise II Mathematical models | 184 |

Reverberation I Observations and physical models | 200 |

Sonar performance models | 231 |

Model evaluation | 261 |

Abbreviations and acronyms | 279 |

Glossary of terms | 288 |

297 | |

Author index | 329 |

337 | |

Reverberation II Mathematical models | 212 |

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### Common terms and phrases

active sonar ambient noise applications approximation Arctic areas Atlantic Ocean attenuation backscattering bottom loss boundary calculated Chapter coefficient convergence zone databases deep sound channel density developed directionality effects energy environmental function geometry grazing angle horizontal hydrophone interaction internal waves Jensen layer depth low-frequency mathematical models measurements mixed layer multipath Naval noise levels noise models noise sources normal mode ocean environment Oceanographic parabolic equation parameters prediction propagation models range-dependent ray paths ray theory ray trace RAYMODE referred reflection refraction regions reverberation level reverberation model salinity scattering strength sea floor sea surface seamounts sediments shallow-water signal solution sonar model sonar performance models sonar systems sound channel axis sound speed gradient sound speed profile source and receiver specific spectrum surface duct target techniques temperature tion transmission loss under-ice underwater acoustic underwater acoustic models Urick vertical volume reverberation water column wave equation wind speed