United Nations Interventionism, 1991–2004

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Cambridge University Press, Feb 15, 2007 - Political Science
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After years of paralysis, the 1990s saw an explosion in the number of United Nations field operations around the world. In terms of scope and level of ambition, these interventions went beyond the tried and tested principles of classical UN peacekeeping. Indeed, in some cases - such as Cambodia, Kosovo and East Timor - the UN presence assumed the form of quasi-protectorates designed to steer war-torn and deeply divided societies towards lasting peace. This book examines the UN's performance and assesses the wider impact of 'new interventionism' on international order and the study of international relations. Featuring eight case studies of major UN interventions and an introductory chapter outlining the most important theoretical and political features of the international system which have led to the increased interventionary practices of the UN, this book will appeal to students and researchers in international relations and international organizations.
 

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Contents

1 Introduction
1
experience of the UN in responding to individual crisis and
6
Under Clinton the United States appeared to favour a division
28
2 Cambodia
32
The nature of the conflict
36
A changing international context
38
From Paris to Paris
39
The nature of the Paris Agreement
41
command level was to be split 5050 between the RPF
144
UNAMIR II
157
External analysis
159
Internal analysis
161
Evolved practice
162
Financing and planning
163
Continued obstacles to effective peacekeeping
166
Rwandan lives were not worth the insurance risk of providing
167

private reservations because to abide strictly by their terms could
42
Seats in
61
Conclusion
63
the continuing absence in the UN system of a place
64
3 Former Yugoslavia
65
and the obvious regional organisations in Europe were the EU
70
the retreat from principle
78
forms and fictions
82
from summer 1993
87
The position in December 1994
91
Regionalglobal organisation relationships
96
Afterword
102
4 Somalia
108
The nature of the conflict
113
Somali political culture
114
The trigger to international intervention
119
abandoned southern Somalia to its gruesome fate In March 1992
121
Assessment
134
Afterword
137
5 Rwanda
139
war negotiations
141
6 Haiti
168
justice those responsible for gross human rights violations and an
169
Aftermath of the coup in Haiti
170
prove perhaps the most successful multilateral effort in Haiti of
171
UNMIH could not discharge its mandate with only 1200 soldiers
176
An exit strategy?
180
Conclusions
188
When the Council reengaged in 2004 the United States was
189
7 East Timor
192
Consultation and accountability
199
Justice and reconciliation
204
Relief and reconstruction
208
democracy freedom of association and the rule of law On
211
broader lessons from East Timors engagement with international
212
8 Kosovo
217
History
218
settlement short of full independence by way of an independent
244
9 Sierra Leone
246
the events of May 2000
261
Learning Lessons
268

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About the author (2007)

Mats Berdal is Professor of Security and Development in the Department of War Studies at King's College London. He was formerly the Director of Studies at the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London.

Spyros Economides is Senior Lecturer in the European Institute of the London School of Economics. He was a Research Associate of the International Institute for Strategic Studies and has served as Specialist Adviser to the EU Committee of the House of Lords.

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