Universal Geography: Containing the theory, or mathematical, physical and political principles of geography

Front Cover
Wells and Lilly, 1826 - Atlases
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Contents

PAGE
46
Investigations of MLaurin Clairaut c Inequality of the Degree on the Oblate Plane
51
Comparison of the Northern and Southern HemispheresIs
54
Depression of JupiterEnglish MeasuresDoubts
57
Decrease of the Degrees of Parallels
64
Reduction of Nautical Longitudes 68 Common way of making GlobesUses of the GlobeDistance of Places
70
To find the Length of the Days
80
Continuation of the Theory of GeographyOf Geographical
86
Tracing of ParallelsHorizontal Projection
94
Horizontal Projection and tracing of the Meridians
100
Continuation of the Theory of GeographyOf Geographic
105
First method of Ptolemy
112
Measure of the Surface of the Globe 76
117
Cylindrical DevelopmentsOf Loxodromic Lines 117 Construction of Flat Maps
118
Properties of this ProjectionSpindle of the Terrestrial
124
Nautical MapsScienti6c Maps
128
Employment of Itinerary DistancesValuation of Measures
134
Sinuosity of the RouteValue of Days of March
140
Illumination
146
BOOK VII
152
Direction of Peninsulas
160
Connection of ChainsDeclivities of Mountains
166
Islands Flat and VolcanicChains and Groups of Islands
172
BOOK VIII
179
Their Origin 312
181
Basaltic CavernsVeins
184
Alluvial SoilsPebbles
190
Continuation of the Theory of Geography Of aggregate Sub
194
Marble Calcareous Spar Stalactites
196
Sand and Gravel Rock CrystalSilex Oriental Agate 201 Opal Jasper common Silex
203
Talc position of Talc
209
Tourmaline Lazulite Jade Asbestos or Amianthus
210
Pit Coals situated in BasaltJet Elastic Pitch
216
Gold its positionGeographical situation of Gold 221 Sands producing GoldQuality of Gold
222
Position of Copper
228
Sulphuret of Iron Ferruginous Pyrites 233 Vitriol of Iron EmerySteel Qualities of Iron
234
tions
239
Petrosilex jade c Primitive LimestoneMagnesian Rocks
246
Marl Grts Sandstone Recomposed Granite Rapakivi
252
Of the coagulation of Basalt
258
Continuation of the Theory of Geography Of the Fossil
264
TowraineRemarks upon the Shells in Germany 270 Shells of the North and South of EuropeShells of Asia
271
Fossil Elephants in EuropeIn Iceland and America
278
Continuation of the Theory of Geography Of Water in general
284
Streams rivers torrents and rivuletsGlaciersHydrogra
291
Mouth of riversMascaret
297
Floaitng IslandsFloating periodical Islands 303 Floating Islands which have become stationaryTemperature
304
Aluminous and Soapy Waters c Formation of Mineral
310
Warm Sulphureous WatersWaters which are inflammable
313
Igneous Meteors
365
Aurora Borealis
368
Magnetism Magnetic Needle
374
Origin of Variable WindsSea and Land Breezes 380 Winds of a peculiar qualityMoons influenceHurricanes
381
General explanation of the Monsoons 387 389 How the Monsoons changeDouble Winds
388
Classification of Seas 1
395
Effects of the Neighbourhood of the Sea
401
East and West Coasts in the Torrid ZoneExamination of the Climates of Hippocrates
407
Hot and humid ClimateCold and dry ClimateCold and
413
Different opinionsCauses of this phenomenon
419
General ViewsTwo classes of Terrestrial Revolutions
424
Lakes formed by subsiding
430
Whether it be possible to prevent or foresee fallings down Effects of running Water
436
Changes in the Gulf of Venice
442
Diminution of the Baltic by the clearing of new groundsLo
448
Effects of the FrostObservations upon Western America
449
Volcanoes of the Atlantic OceanScattered VolcanoesGe
455
Of the new Volcanic Islands
461
Insufficiency of Geological ObservationsValue of hypotheses
467
System of Anaximenes
473
Ideas of Palissy 1581Ideas of Stenore 1669System
475
Explanation of the Universal Deluge
481
Influence of Temperature upon VegetablesTo what point
487
Epochs in the propagation of plantsPrimitive centres
493
Vegetation of the Torrid Zone
499
Appearance of the Vegetation in the Torrid Zone
500
Fishes
506
Birds of the Temperate ZonesAnnual MigrationsBirds
512
The Rabbitthe Squirrelthe Stag
518
lsatis or Polar FoxOtterBeaver
521
HippopotamusElephants of Asia and AfricaThe Lion 527 The TigerThe PantherThe LeopardThe OunceIn
529
Dignity of ManEffects of our OrganizationUnity of
535
Cause with the EuropeansInfluence of CivilizationVarie
539
American variety
545
General Summary 551
551
Political and Moral causes multiplying the SpeciesOf Poly
557
Continuation and Conclusion of the General Theory of Geogra
565
Turkish and Tartar LanguagesMongol Mantchou
571
JudaismChristianityGreek Church
578
Forms of GovernmentDemocracyAristocracy 683
584
VOI I
590
HabitationTowns Country Towns and Villages
596
People inhabiting PlainsNomadesFishermen and Agricul
602
Comparison of French and English Weights and Mea
607
Comparative View of Linear Measures called or equi
618
Measurement carried on in Lapland and PeruDifferent other
624
A Table of the different Measures of Antiquity
626
Table of the most Remarkable Heights in different parts
632

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Page 476 - aurora borealis, reflected by the snow, dispels the darkness of the polar night. The days for several months, though of a monotonous magnificence, astonishingly accelerate the growth of vegetation. In three days, or rather three times twenty-four hours, the snow is melted, and the flowers begin to blow.
Page 187 - greater number of the principal mountains have one of their sides very steep, and the other of a very " gradual slope.* The Alps, for example, are much more rapid in their descent on the Italian side than on that of Switzerland. On the contrary, the Dophrines, or Scandinavian Alps, have a much steeper declivity to the
Page 506 - that the grounds near Ravenna has sunk to such a degree, that the pavement of the cathedral is only six inches above the level of high water; but, at the same time, the land is extended in such a manner that this town, formerly situate in the midst of marshes, and canals, and furnished with an
Page 363 - causes which are local, and sometimes illusory. It is said that the Mediterranean Sea, in its upper part, has sometimes a purple tint. In the gulf of Guinea, the Sea is white, and around the Maldive Islands black. The Vermeille, or
Page 6 - could only be represented by a grain of sand less than one-twentieth of an inch in thickness. Irregularities so imperceptible do not deserve to be taken into consideration. We shall see, in the following Book, that the true differences which exist between our globe
Page 363 - a blue shade to distant mountains, and which give the atmosphere its azure hue. The rays of blue light, being the most refrangible, pass in the greatest quantity through the aquatic fluid, which, from its density and depth, makes them undergo a strong refraction. The other shades in the
Page 474 - the proximity of very high mountains, covered with perpetual snow; the trade winds, and the periodical inundations, equally contribute to diminish the heat. This is the reason why, in the torrid zone, we meet with all kinds of climates. The plains are burnt up by the heat of the sun. All the eastern coasts of the great continents,
Page 359 - true surface of our planet The only exception to this position, may perhaps be found in gulfs and inland seas, which have only a slight communication with the ocean. In these parts of the sea. the level of the water may sometimes be a little more elevated than in the ocean. It is alleged that the Dutch
Page 24 - of the ecliptic causes the arc of the equator, which passes the meridian in the same time with the diurnal arc of the ecliptic, to be not always equal to it, but to be sometimes greater and sometimes less. With regard to the

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