Urban Microclimate: Designing the Spaces Between Buildings
The quality of life of millions of people living in cities could be improved if the form of the city were to evolve in a manner appropriate to its climatic context. Climatically responsive urban design is vital to any notion of sustainability: it enables individual buildings to make use of renewable energy sources for passive heating and cooling, it enhances pedestrian comfort and activity in outdoor spaces, and it may even encourage city dwellers to moderate their dependence on private vehicles. Urban Microclimate bridges the gap between climatology research and applied urban design. It provides architects and urban design professionals with an understanding of how the structure of the built environment at all scales affects microclimatic conditions in the space between buildings, and analyzes the interaction between microclimate and each of the elements of the urban landscape. In the first two sections of the book, the extensive body of work on this subject by climatologists and geographers is presented in the language of architecture and planning professionals. The third section follows each step in the design process, and in part four a critical analysis of selected case study projects provides a demonstration of the complexity of applied urban design. Practitioners will find in this book a useful guide to consult, as they address these key environmental issues in their own work.
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1 Scales of Climatic Study
2 The Urban Energy Balance
3 The Urban Heat Island
4 Urban AirFlow
5 The Energy Balance of a Human Being in an Urban Space
6 Thermal Preferences
7 Application of Climatology in Urban Planning and Design
8 Microclimate Design Strategies in Urban Space
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adjacent advection air temperature air-flow albedo angle anthropogenic heat aspect ratio Atmospheric Environment average axis Boundary-Layer Meteorology canyon aspect ratio canyon geometry Climatology convective cool island daytime density east–west effect of urban emissivity Energy and Buildings energy balance environmental evaporation evaporative cooling evapotranspiration exchange Figure flow Grimmond H/W ratio heat transfer height horizontal humidity International Journal Journal of Climatology latent heat flux layer long-wave radiation measured microclimate moisture nocturnal ofthe overall parameters park Pearlmutter pedestrian pollutants radiative reflected relative result roof roughness length rural Sde Boqer sensible heat simulation solar access solar radiation storage studies surface energy surface energy balance surface temperature terrain thermal comfort thermal stress trees turbulent typically urban areas urban canopy urban canyon urban climate urban design urban environment urban heat island urban microclimate urban space urban street canyon urban surface values vegetation ventilation vertical wall wind speed