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DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA 2 3
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
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American robin Appendix Table Avian density avifauna AXIS 1 Figure back trees bird densities bird populations bird species diversity Black-capped Blue jay breeding bird breeding season Brown thrasher cape cod cardinals catbird Cedar waxwing census chipping sparrows community age coniferous trees conifers densities absence darkened Ecology Emlen forest species front trees Geis Graber and Graber grackles Habitat characteristics habitat index hectare house finch house sparrow House wren individuals per hectare landscape Maple Bluff Monona mourning doves nesting Northern oriole Number of species older stands presence darkened ranch single story ranch split level Red-eyed vireo relative densities remnants of oak Residential robins rock doves sample shrub index shrubbery single story ranch Song sparrow split level ranch starlings story older story ranch single study sites suburbs three tallest deciduous transect tree index urban areas urban bird communities urban environment urban habitat urban species Vale and Vale Wildlife Wisconsin Woolfenden and Rohwer